College of Education P. M. B. , Azare Bauchi State, Nigeria. 2Lecturer III B. A. that school community relationship is very relevant in the development of primary education in Azare metropolis due .. Quality & Stress in Nigerian Education. according to Nigeria's Department of Population Education () informs school - community relationship as a necessary basis for providing. Among the major findings of the study is that school community relationship is very . relation is believed to be below that of Aba in Southern part of Nigeria. has led to the inadequacy of facilities and equipment in many Nigerian schools.
The Water Board can also help in fixing some spoiled pipes and pumps in the school. With good relationship, media housescould help promote the school relationship with the communities through information dissemination. Hospitals, clinics and dispensaries could relate with the school for health care delivery. Other important communityagencies which schools need are sister schools for exchange of ideas and mutual support and parents for volunteer services, moral support and discipline of students.
Senior citizens also can help solicit community support for the school as some of them are respected members in political parties, forums associations, ministries, business corporations and traditional councils. When these citizens are involved into school affairs, they can help in soliciting financial support from the community for the school and its programmes. They can lobby government to approve some of the proposed school programmes.
On the other hand, the school can contribute so much to the community. The community depends on the school for the provision of manpower needed for its continued existence as the students go back to the community when they schooled. Most of school employees are hired from the communities and live in the community. The community also depends on the school hall for their meetings, playground for their cultural activities and the school building, can also be put to use in times of emergency.
Agabi and Okorie in Agabi, Okorosaye-orubite, Ezekiel-Hart and Egbezor noted that the classrooms are used for adult literacy activities nationwide, for public health activities like immunizations and public enlightenment exercises and in emergency epidemic situations, school building are converted into makeshift hospitals. School buildings are also put into use during voting exercises.
Importance of School Resources in Promoting School Community Relationship School resources are very important in promoting school community relationship. According to Bakwai some of these resources which can be used in promoting school community relationship include the following: Classrooms can be used to earn community support.
They can be allowed to be used by the communities when school closes or is on holidays. This will help establish good relationship with the community.
School library can equip a room with books that parents can come to read and borrow. The books to be provided should be of interest to the parents such as books on child psychology, married life, current affairs, health care, etc. Community agencies can be allowed to use school theatres and for social events, meetings, games and festivals. This will make community agencies be concerned with whatever would be happening to the school. School parks, farms, gardens are all good resources which can be used to establish everlasting school relationship with communities.
This will be intended to serve both the school and the neighbouring community. This will always bring the school closer to the community members and they will be most concerned with anything that will affect the school. Challenges of Managing School Community Relationship It is increasingly clear that poor school community relationship is risky. School community relation cannot be free from general school administrative problems.
School administration has so many problems. This is because the demands on school administration are many. There are numerous challenges before the general education and before the agencies of school administration.
According to Sidhu these challenges are: Lack of Credibility The school administrative agencies in general suffer from lack of credibility.
School community relationship is no exception. The agencies of school administration have lost their 16 grip over the areas school community relationship. Consequently it is found school community relationship getting loose day by day.
When the principals have lost their credibility, the teachers would not care to take them seriously. Poor Facilities Lack of urgent facilities, lead to much complication for the principals. Efficiency and control in school community relationship cannot be ensured in the absence of required equipment and provisions. Poor facility is a big excuse for manyadministrators and teachers to be slack, irresponsible and negligent in carrying out effective school community relationship.
It may be genuinely difficult to carry out effective school community relationship in the absence of relevant facilities. School administrators are used to taking shelter behind every available excuse. They cannot get things done in the absence of the things proper. One missing facility can stops a good school community relationship activity even if all other facilities may be present. Unrest There is a perpetual unrest in every segment of our society. The teachers, parents and students suffer from unrest for the reason of their own.
This inherent unrest needs only a little provocation to come into the open and cause a big problem for school community relationship. Trade unionism among parent and students further aggravates the situation and exploits every cause for grievance.
The administrators fail to observe the prescribed schedule of school community relationship when the students observe protest days every now and then. Grievances are concocted even if there exists none.
It has become very difficult to maintain good school community relationship in schools these days. External forces always snatch every opportunity for creating trouble between schools and communities.
Lack of Cooperation Collective thinking and action have become very rare in the spheres of school community relationship. All the headaches are passed on to the principals and everybody else keeps aloof and enjoys at a distance. School administrators have not been able to make school community relationship a cooperative affair. Teachers do not try to join their heads and hands towards the common goals of school community relationship. School administrators find themselves all alone to look after all aspects of school community relationship.
Others do not come forward to share the burden or to shoulder the responsibilities. Instead, the junior teaching staffs is often in the habit of creating difficulties and problem for the school administrators. Non performance The function of the traditional school was to transmit the social heritage of the community. The modern sociological view of education lay down that the school constantly draws upon social life and activities for its subject matter, its methods of teaching and its methods of work.
Non-performance has become order of the day in every walk of life.
People take pride in drawing fat salaries for doing nothing. It is a fashion to remain idle during working hours. Leave aside tangible contribution, the school teachers are not prepared to make any contribution whatsoever in the development of school community relationship.
No teacher is ashamed to shirk work and responsibility towards making school community relationship a success. School administratorshave not been able to make their school community relationship result-oriented.
There is no provision to take any body to task for 18 poor school community relationship. There are no norms to judge between a poor and good performance. The routines and formalities are observed to throw dust into the eyes of the school administratorsor community members, although the net result may be nothing. Sycophancy thrives in spite of nonperformance. Lack of Devotion In school community relationship duties can be adequately done only if there is sense of devotion.
What to talk of devotion, most of our principals show lack of concern. They do not work with any commitment. There is no zeal in them. They simply handle school community relationship as formalities.
They are administratorswithout any involvement in school community relationship. They have never felt inspired and have never further inspired anybody when it comes to issues of school community relationship. They will work only to the extent that they do not invite any punishment. There is no urge in them to work for self-satisfaction or to earn gratitude of the students and the community. Extra attention or extra time for the student is no more in sight.
Out-Date Expertise The expertise in spheres school community relationship is no more equal to the task. Innovation are nowhere in sight. Outmoded methods are only devices available to the school administratorsand teachers. The requirements for a good school community relationship have markedly changed over the years but our experts continue to cling to conservative approaches. School community relationship of the modern era, have become complicated and sophisticated but our methods to deal with them are the same which are unscientific and arbitrary in nature.
School administrators have failed to evolve matching strategies to combat emerging 19 complications of school community relationship and thus situation is going out of control day by day. Wastage The entire secondary school structures, programmes and actions suffer from acute wastage. This wastage is visible in the area of efficiency, speed, resources, time and outputs of school community relationship programmes.
Red tapism is a wasteful phenomenon. Too much time is needed to take decisions and to translate them into action. Schools suffer from irrational distribution of theirmeagre resources.
There is a haphazard approach in dealing with urgent matters and problems concerning school community relationship. Efficiency in school community relationship is almost missing. There is no stress on striking a balance between school community relationship inputs and outputs.
Placement of human material in school community relationship is also haphazard. There are too many square pegs in round holes resulting into sheer wastage of many types.
Poor Planning We hold this wrong impression that we are good at planning but poor at action. School community relationship planning and execution both lack much to be desired. The plans are generally over ambitious which cannot possibly be put into practice. Most of the school community relationship functions are unplanned adventures. The future of schools and the community remains uncertain in the absence of planned school community relation programmes. There is no serious effort at planning school community relation programmes and events.
The school community relations agencies in schools are moving in a blind alley in the absence of long term and shot term planning. To be effective, school administrator should have a well-developed school community relationship plans. The 10 components of such a plan according to Pawlas are as follows: Provide the community with information about the school.
The community should be informed on the goals and objectives of the school. The community should know all the programmes and general activities of the school. No any change or innovation that will take place in the school without the prior knowledge of the community which the school serves.
Provide the school with information about the community. The school should have information about the composition of the community, such as the income and the educational level and occupation of the majority of the residents.
The school should also know what community opinion is, regarding both broad education issues and the day to day operation of the school itself. The school should also have some familiarity with the educational resources available in the community in order that they can be utilized to enrich and enhance the school programmes. Establish and maintain public confidence in the school. Activities Such as Coffee Parties at predetermined times can be used. At these meetings, members of the local community are encouraged to give their opinions regarding the school and specific educational issues.
This can provide an opportunity to establish public confidence 4. Secure community support for the school and its programme. Invite the community to participate as volunteers in many of the school activities such as teaching local history, 21 serving in advisory committee, acting as volunteers in library, laboratory, and clinic for the school, kitchen, etc.
Develop a community of purpose, effort and achievement. Let the community understand that when the school fails the community also fails, and that the survival of the school depends heavily on the community. This will make the community have some feelings of purpose and hope to support the school and its programmes.
This could make the community exert serious efforts for the achievement of the school goals. Develop in the community recognition of the vital importance of education in our social and economic life. Let the student use skills acquired at school to entertain and serve members of the community.
Students of technical education on vocational experience can be send to work on the homes of some identified community members such as volunteer groups, senior citizens or on building of some religious or social institutions such as mosques, churches, orphanages, recreational centre, etc.
Keep the community informed of new trends and developments in education. The community should be informed of any change in the curriculum or programmes of the school. For instance, on the introduction of Universal Basic Education UBEthe community should be informed of the aims and objectives of the programme, success so far recorded and challenge to be faced by both the school and the community it serves.
Develop an atmosphere of cooperation between the school and other social institution of the community. A variety of school activities that requires use of community resources by the school is introduced. Students of technical education on vocational experience can 22 be send to work on the homes of some identified community members such as volunteer groups, senior citizens or on building of some religious or social institutions such as mosques, churches, orphanages, recreational centre, etc.
Develop public goodwill towards the school. The school can invite community organizations to use schools facilities such as classroom, library, laboratory, gym, halls fields, pools, theatre, auditorium, etc.
This will create in the community a sense of belonging to whatever success or failure of the school. Activitiesthat Promote EffectiveSchool Community Relationship School community relationship can interconnect together many activities to enhance communities that support all youth and their families US Department of Health and Human Services According to the Department, researches have shown that there is variety of activities in which schools can become involved to build and improve school community relationship; these include: Encourage Community use of School Facilities: Often the school building sit empty after the end of the normal school day.
Encouraging non-profit community groups to use the facilities is not only good use of resources but also provides opportunities for the schools to get involved in community projects. At least once a year, perhaps around the time of celebrations, invited senior citizens to a luncheon banquets at the school; banquet can be sponsored by 23 a school services organization, by non-profit corporation, or by private industry.
Usually, parents are willing to come in to assist in the preparation of the meal. Back to School Week: Choose a week during the school year to invite parents and community members to your school. Make a special effort to personally invite the community and business leaders to attend school for the other part of the day.
Hold annual career days; this is not only good educational experience for the students, but also help local business people to learn more about the school and school needs. In addition, it helps to understand the employment need in the area. Provide periodic newsletters not only to the families of the students, but also to board members, business leaders and other community members.
A simple data base can be used to include new people, encourage members of the school community to suggest other folks who might be included in the mailing list 6. News release mailed to local media could be a good strategy for public relations and community outreach programmes 7. In the local media, publish a list of students who made significant accomplishment during the school year. Give students who earn a place on the Honour Roll a Gold Card which is honoured by participating businesses who provide discount to those students for the marking period.
Strategies for School Community Relationship The school should not remain satisfied with the achievement that after completing education, its pupils adapt themselves properly to the existing physical and social conditions to their society.
On the other hand, it should ensure that the new generation tries to set up a better 24 and still better society. The schools do their best in removing social evils and other unworthy features of the society. It will try to dispel ignorance, taboos, prejudices and superstitions from society.
The school administrator endeavours to promote community participation in some aspects of school life. To succeed in doing this, Murphy and Tacyp.
These are as follows: Identify your community — relations goals. At the board level, ideally, as part of the strategic-planning process, establish community relations goals and assign responsibility for addressing them. Research concrete, specific ways in which the communities need school help, support, involvement or presence.
Identify the areas where the school need community help. Learn how the channels of communication really work in your community. Develop a prioritized plan of action based on research. Get to know community expectation, concerns and sensibilities — including local regulations and local regulatory bodies. Ensure that each time the strategic plans are revisited and also the community relation strategies are reviewed.
In addition, he identifies the following as strategies to improve communication in school. Invite new teachers and new parents to a tour of the district.
Cover points of interest, local churches, facilities available in the area, place that could be used for field trips, boundaries of attendance area. Develop a slide presentation orienting new parents and students to the school. Establish regular visitation days for observation of classes and a chance for parents to offer constructive suggestions. Invite parents to visit classrooms whenever they wish to do so and send special invitations for culmination of unit, puppet play, songfest, etc.
Arrange meetings with parents whenever an innovation in curriculum and instruction is to be tried.
Chapter on School Community Relationship | Bala B Kwashabawa - oculo-facial-surgery.info
Have open houses for one grade level at a time, small groups of parents lend better to communication. Vary the times for open houses. Hold some in the afternoon, some at night. Plan to drink lots of coffee, share lots of information, and do lots of listening to concerns while building goodwill and feelings of unity.
Organize special outreach efforts to hard-to-reach parents through telephone calls, home visits, and special mailed invitations to parents in home languages to have lunch at school with children. Invite fathers to a breakfast with teachers where discussion will take place and dads may then visit classes as their day permits. Have children prepare a luncheon for parents, teachers, and themselves.
Invite several parents to sample the school lunch once a month. Seat them with the principal, teachers, and several randomly selected students. Invite each parent to have lunch with his child at school during in a special day. Let the students in your classroom cook an evening meal or a luncheon for their parents. Hold a bean and hot dog supper and open house coordinated with a talent show.
Allow children to show their parents around the school building. Make possible for teachers to make home visits at least occasionally. Invite people in area to meet informally with the principal and one or two teachers to talk about school and education. Conduct home visits involving teachers and trained volunteers. Make sure that teachers are represented and recognized at PTA or other parent group meetings. Encourage teachers to become more visible in the community.
Seek out the parents who never participate. Sometimes these parents feel inadequate or timid and simply need to be encouraged and needed. Provide translators and translations. Establish a Home-School Cooperation Committee. Exchange reports with other schools. Follow up on problems and resolve complaints-no matter how small or insignificant they may seem. Little things have a way of building into big things. Show that you are genuinely interested in what they are doing.
Have tooth envelopes for sending home the teeth that come out at school with a note from the teacher. Urge teacher training institutions to place more importance on home-school cooperation in their teacher education programs. Make an effort to improve the telephone answering techniques of everyone in the school office. Try teacher phone calls to parents to invite them to back-to-school nights. Occasionally, ask the child to have parents call the teacher rather than the teacher contact the parent.
Suggest members advertise their telephone numbers. Let them know that you really want to know what is being said, and be sure to let them know when you have followed up on concerns they have shared with you. Advertising one evening a week when parents or students can telephone the principal to ask questions or discuss problems. Hold staff workshops on communications skills with a special focus on parents. Have an information brochure on your school for visitors, for parents to send to grandparents, or for graduates to have.
Improve the quality and frequency of school newsletters. Set up an idea exchange in the school newspaper. Ask parents to send in ideas, then, in a later issue of the paper, publish ideas and how they are used.
Writing in the school plan that each teacher will send home weekly class newsletter. Send home weekly notice in a school envelope, inviting two-way communication on the envelope. Send pre-printed postcards to parents. Provide a weekly student performance contact which students, parent and teacher sign. The modern sociological view of education lay down that the school constantly draws upon social life and activities for its subject matter, its methods of teaching and its methods of work.
There must be a conscious and continuous intercourse, a free give and take between the little world of the school and bigger one outside. The school has to arrange for the students opportunities to participate in social services, health campaigns, development plans, and other public activities.
Any divorce between school and community is likely to make teaching artificial. School is a place where both children and adult are educated for progress of the whole community. School buildings, furniture, equipment, 3 human resources, etc. They should be unhesitatingly placed at the disposal of the community after school hours.
School teachers should also come forward and place their knowledge and experience at the disposal of community and assume the role of guides and leaders of the social group. The school library and play grounds can especially be of significant service to the community Ihebereme, The school also helps arrange public lectures, exhibitions, fairs, tournaments, symposia, discussions, recreational programmes and other social functions that involve the community as a whole.
The programme of adult education can also be co-ordinate with the school. The school grounds may be thrown open to the other children of the locality who have no other place for playing. The school will serve as a society in miniature-a small but ideal community. It will be a model for the society around.
It will act as a watch dog against social degeneration. By enhancing its own status and contribution it will enhance the status of the community as a whole Sidhu, The increase in single-parent and dual income families Schools enjoy the informed support of families and community members. Communities can provide schools with a context and environment that can either complement and reinforce the values, culture, and learning the school provide for their students or negates everything the school strive to accomplish.
Communities can furnish schools with crucial financial support system as well as the social and cultural values necessary for success and survival in contemporary society. Communities have the potential to extend a variety of opportunities to students and to their families-social, cultural and vocational. Schools, in turn, offer communities a focal point of educational services for children. By working together, schools, families, and communities can prepare for a more promising future.
Empirical Study Okorie, Ememe and Egu of the Department of Educational Management Faculty of Education, University of Port-Harcourt, conducted a research on school-community relations in the development of secondary schools with the focus on Aba Educational Zone of the state. The data was collected with the use of item modified 4-points Likert instrument from a sample of teachers and principals which total population were The data was collected.
The purpose of the study was to determine the role of the community in ensuring the academic performance of students in secondary schools in Aba Zone, and to determine the role of the community in the provision of facilities in the school in Aba Zone. The general high means recorded in their study indicated that communities play important roles ensuring the academic performance of students and provision of facilities in schools.
In support of this, Koko and Nwiyi stressed that communities should be able to execute programmes that will provide resources, manpower and funds to the schools. In keeping with finding of this study, Kenkwo 5 advised that communities should work hard and together to provide educational programmes such as counseling and scholarship for the youths. Collaborating further, Agabi, Okorosaye-Orubite, Ezekiel-hart and Egbezor outlined very important areas where community had identified itself in the development of the school to include: Donation of land for building the school and funding and accommodations to teachers.
These researchers concluded that communities play active roles in ensuring the academic performance and the provision of amenities in schools. They recommend that, Communities should be made to be more actively involved in other areas of school activities, like enforcement of discipline, and that members of the community should be more committed to the affairs of the school and show same by constantly monitoring the academic activities in the school.
The above research is relevant to a research like this because it is conducted at a secondary school level and is concerned with school-community relations. Both researches aimed at developing strategies of managing school-community relations for the development of secondary school.
The different between the two studies is the area of study. School-community relations are well developed in Aba Education Zone as indicated by the findings of Okorie, Ememe and Egu Thus the conclusion cannot be generalized to Zamafara State where school-community relation is believed to be below that of Aba in Southern part of Nigeria.
Despite the difference in time frames, educational advancement, geographical environment and socio-cultural variation, the extent to which this research could benefit this study should not be underestimated.
The above study will definitely be of values to this current study. This theory defines organization as a system of co-operation whereby people work together for a common goal. And school cannot succeed without the co-operation of several individuals within the community. School community relationship tries to create mutual co-operation between school and community.
It brings people and school together. School community relationship therefore is co-operative in nature and is man oriented. Barnard is of the opinion that a person can and will be willing to accept a command as authoritative only if the following four conditions hold. In Zamfara State, there seems to be lack of effective communication between schools and communities. This lack of effective communication brings about lack of understanding between schools and communities which consequently leads to lower degree of co-operation between them.
This trend may occur as a result of school administrators ignoring the role of school community relationship in the development of schools. Hence, this study intends to investigate the significant role of school community relationship in the development of secondary education in Zamfara State.
This trend has grown to an extent that government in Nigeria has been unable to single-handedly provide qualitative education to all those who demand it due to financial implications. According to Madiewesi government has to invite the people to participate actively in running secondary schools especially in the area of providing supporting educational services. Also according to Musaazi the sudden and continuous increase in secondary school population has led to the inadequacy of facilities and equipment in many Nigerian schools.
This is because for goals and objectives of the school systems to be achieved, funds and facilities are required for executing various activities or schools programmes. But the community members which government invite seems not to acknowledge the invitation.
This is because a visit to any secondary schools in Zamfara State would reveal how members of communities generally fold their arms waiting for government to maintain the tradition of construction and maintenance of physical structures, the supply of stationeries and meeting the current expenditure needed for secondary education. This is an issue of concern because it is only through the help of community that secondary schools in Zamfara state could hold any future.
Consequently, this study investigated the roles of school community relationship in the development of secondary education in Zamfara State. Objectives of the Study This is designed to achieve the following objectives: To identify the significances of school community relationship in the development of Secondary education in Zamfara State.
To identify school resources that can be used to encourage school community relationship in Senior Secondary Schools in Zamfara State. Research Questions The following questions are set as a guide for this research: What is the significance of school community relationship in development of Secondary education in Zamfara State? What are the school resources that can be used to encourage school community relationship in Senior Secondary Schools in Zamfara State?
Research Design This study used descriptive survey approach where portion of the entire population was subjected to analysis and the findings was used to draw conclusion on the entire population. Population and Sample The population of this study comprised of all the 89 principals, vice-principals, teachers and PTA officials of all public senior secondary schools in Zamfara state.
Convenient sampling technique was used to select 16 senior secondary schools. Taking into cognizance some different characteristics among the senior secondary schools such as day and boarding; urban and rural; single sex and mixed; and science, technical and commercial schools, the researcher used stratified random sampling to select the 16 schools.
Whereas Krejcie and Morgan table for determining sample size from a given population was used to determine the required sample size for teachers. A sample size of teachers was determined. It consisted mainly of close-ended structures which required the respondents to tick their best option and was structured on Two Point Scale i.
Validity and Reliability of the Instrument The questionnaire designed for this research was validated by different experts in the field of Educational Research and Educational Management in the Faculty of Education and Extension Services, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto. The questionnaire was validated for its relevance to subject matter, appropriateness of the text content and coverage of the content area. After making all the necessary adjustments, the experts approved the instrument as being valid for collecting data in this study.
In order to determine the reliability of the questionnaire, a pilot study was conducted using test- retest method of reliability with an interval of three weeks in order to establish the stability of the questionnaire over time. Method of Data Collection The researcher personally visited all the selected senior secondary schools in the company of trained research assistants during the period of data collection.
This facilitate on the spot collection of the completed instrument.