Research design and its types: Exploratory, descriptive and causal - cheshnotes
Exploratory, Descriptive, and Causal Research Designs determining the frequency with which something occurs, or the covariance between two variables . Causal – Emphasis on determining cause-and-effect relationships. Relationship Among Exploratory, Descriptive and Causal Research 7. Tasks Involved in Research Design Formulation 9. Marketing Research Proposal (page . various types of exploratory research and describe each Discuss the difference between cross-sectional and longitudinal descriptive research designs Explain.
After having set the objectives of research, the next step is to decide the research design which best suits the research objectives. It is on the basis of the research design that the research methodology and sampling procedure are selected.
Benefit From 3 Types of Survey Research
Then the structure and sequence of the overall research project are laid out. Finally, the research design is implemented and this implementation begins with the design of the data gathering instruments.
After that follows, data collection, manipulation and analysis and at last the data is interpreted to know the results. A research design is a very important part of research which serves as a road map letting you know your position and where you are going to stand once you have completed the research.Marketing Research (Mkt377) Series 3 Video 2 (of 6)
Researchers must keep their ultimate objectives in mind even if they have to take detours and change direction during the research process. The road map helps them reach their destination.
There is not one research design which you can consider the best but you can select from among several.
Exploratory, Descriptive, and Causal Research Designs by Robert Patterson on Prezi
The choice of research design is affected by several factors, both minute and large. From research objectives to search budget and time frame, there are several factors that can help you determine which research design suits your research the best. Much of the choice is still based on the objectives of the research which may be one of the following or something similar: These are the three broadly different types of objectives from which the names of there types of research designs have been obtained respectively.
The three types of research designs are: Exploratory research It is a lot like exploration or detective work fuelled by curiosity and it is advisable for researchers to use their instincts to find clues and venture into new territories in search of information. Flexibility is important in exploratory research and it is bound to result in new ideas, revelations and insights.
These are some of the objectives that warrant the need for exploratory research: Some tools used to conduct exploratory research: Most often the best point to start research from is to study the previous research conducted in this area. If you study what others have found out, it will help you generate ideas, hypotheses and gain insights. Literature reviews most often are a great tool to conduct exploratory research.
Moreover, it is important to be flexible because the sources from which you can gain the most valuable insights are always not obvious. Sometimes you may find the right information from your managers, sometimes from your customers and sometimes talking to your supply chain partners could help understand the issue better.
However, while personal interviews are also used in descriptive research, the level of flexibility differs. In descriptive research you are somewhat bound by your questions and in exploratory research you have to be flexible and rather than sticking to your original questions, you must ask questions related to what you are hearing from people you are talking to.
Focus group is also a highly popular technique used to conduct exploratory research. A group of 8 to 12 people works on addressing a topic introduced by the moderator and the researcher. Focus groups have proved to be of special importance in: The popularity of focus groups is because of their effectiveness and efficiency as well as because researchers or decision makers can themselves attend them and observe the response of the participants live.
However, a major disadvantage is that a group of just 8 to 12 people cannot be believed to be representative of the entire consumer group. Moreover one cannot conduct extra focus groups to convert findings of exploratory research into descriptive data. Analysing select cases also helps achieve the objectives of exploratory research.
By doing an in-depth analysis of elect cases related to the topic one can reach his objectives. This approach is suitable when there are complex variables at work and to understand these complexities one may need to conduct intensive study. For example you want to know the reason or traits related to his level performance among your sales managers.
Exploratory, Descriptive, and Causal Research Designs
You compare the top performers and bottom performers to check out which traits are common to the best performing salespeople. Projective techniques are useful where the researchers are exploring a topic on which the respondents do not speak directly and clearly. Projective techniques can be used to find out these deep hidden psychological motives which people would otherwise not reveal. Using a variety of communication and observable methods researchers explore these deep psychological motivations which otherwise do not reveal themselves at the surface.
These methods include types of projective techniques: The response, its frequency as well as the time taken to make the response helps establish the underlying motivations towards the topic. No response means a high level of emotional involvement blocking the response. The main idea behind using this type of research is to better define an opinion, attitude, or behaviour held by a group of people on a given subject.
Consider your everyday multiple choice question. Since there are predefined categories a respondent must choose from, it is considered descriptive research. These questions will not give the unique insights on the issues like exploratory research would. Instead, grouping the responses into predetermined choices will provide statistically inferable data.
Causal Research Like descriptive research, causal research is quantitative in nature as well as preplanned and structured in design. For this reason, it is also considered conclusive research. Causal research differs in its attempt to explain the cause and effect relationship between variables. This is opposed to the observational style of descriptive research, because it attempts to decipher whether a relationship is causal through experimentation.
In the end, causal research will have two objectives: For example, a cereal brand owner wants to learn if they will receive more sales with their new cereal box design.
Difference Between Exploratory and Descriptive Research (with Comparison Chart) - Key Differences
Instead of conducting descriptive research by asking people whether they would be more likely to buy their cereal in its new box, they would set up an experiment in two separate stores.
One will sell the cereal in only its original box and the other with the new box. Taking care to avoid any outside sources of biasthey would then measure the difference between sales based on the cereal packaging.
Did the new packaging have any effect on the cereal sales? What was that effect?