Functions of Management – Planning, Organizing, Staffing and More
processes and functions affected by mass layoff events. Sharon P. . from firms with other industry designations. An addition- concept of business organization in firm and industry stud- ies. and government relations), accounting, building. Read this essay on Interrelationship Between the Different Processes and Functions of the Organisation.. Come browse our large digital warehouse of free . HRM is concerned with the management of employees from recruitment to Recruitment is the process of captivating, screening, and selecting potential and job role, and the relationship of position to other positions in the organization.
An effective planning program incorporates the effect of both external as well as internal factors. The external factors are shortages of resources; both capital and material, general economic trend as far as interest rates and inflation are concerned, dynamic technological advancements, increased governmental regulation regarding community interests, unstable international political environments, etc. The internal factors that affect planning are limited growth opportunities due to saturation requiring diversification, changing patterns of work force, more complex organizational structures, decentralization etc Organizing Organizing requires a formal structure of authority and the direction and flow of such authority through which work subdivisions are defined, arranged and co-ordinated so that each part relates to the other part in a united and coherent manner so as to attain the prescribed objectives.
Thus the function of organizing involves the determination of activities that need to be done in order to reach the company goals, assigning these activities to the proper personnel, and delegating the necessary authority to carry out these activities in a co-ordinated and cohesive manner.
It follows, therefore, that the function of organizing is concerned with: Identifying the tasks that must be performed and grouping them whenever necessary Assigning these tasks to the personnel while defining their authority and responsibility. Delegating this authority to these employees Establishing a relationship between authority and responsibility Coordinating these activities Staffing Staffing is the function of hiring and retaining a suitable work-force for the enterprise both at managerial as well as non-managerial levels.
It involves the process of recruiting, training, developing, compensating and evaluating employees, and maintaining this workforce with proper incentives and motivations. Since the human element is the most vital factor in the process of management, it is important to recruit the right personnel. This function is even more critically important since people differ in their intelligence, knowledge, skills, experience, physical condition, age and attitudes, and this complicates the function. Directing has an important role in an organization as it helps strengthen the operational capability of the organization.
It does so by ensuring the different parts of the organization are working better. Directing is a bridge between the operational needs and the human requirements of its employees. You essentially create a link between the necessity of turning in a profit, with the need of keeping employees motivated and interested. Since directing aims to improve productivity, you are strengthening how well the organisation succeeds.
Functions of Management – Planning, Organizing, Staffing and More
If you just throw a blank paper in front of them and tell them to write a story, they are less likely to remain interested. You can direct and lead your team by utilizing four key methods based on the findings of human behavioral studies. Supervision — You need to oversee the work your employees are doing. The method requires watching and monitoring the performance, but also supporting and guiding the employees when things are not going as planned.
You could use evaluation reports, examine the quality of work, and be present during certain parts, such as team meetings or when the person is talking to clients.
You also want to provide materials that can help the employee perform better. Communication — Directing is built around effective communication. As a manager, you need to create an environment that supports different communication methods from passing information to exchanging opinions. The important thing is to ensure these different communication channels are not just between manager and subordinate, but also between employees and different management levels.
Motivation — As mentioned above, big part of directing is about inspiring and motivating your employees.
You need them to get behind the objectives to ensure there is enthusiasm to achieve the goals. Motivating as a manager includes positive and negative feedback, provision of ideas and the opportunities to develop skills further. Directing might also have an element of monetary or non-monetary incentives, such as the introduction of bonuses.
Leadership — Managers must essentially act more like leaders when directing the workforce. This means that you need to occasionally motivate and inspire by setting an example, instead of simply telling the subordinates what they need to do. You want to get hands on with the work and be part of the process of achieving the objectives.
What Is the Relationship Between Organizational Functions & Organizational Structure?
Although managers and leaders tend to differ, leadership skills are something a good manager should keep in mind. The function might seem rather complex and getting it right might be harder than any of the other functions of management. You should watch the video of Jim White, professor emeritus at North Lake College, explaining directing as a function and giving his take on what he thinks are the three key elements of directing: Controlling The final function of management is controlling.
The function ensures the other four functions are followed correctly and the flow of work is moving the organization towards the objectives it has set itself. In our example of having the objective to increase sales in a particular month, controlling would be the function that measures whether the sales are increasing and helps to correct the situation if the specified target is not getting closer. As a manager, you would examine the processes you set forward and take note whether they are enhancing your sales records.
If you find the price reductions being inefficient during the process, you might consider swapping the products on sale, reduce the reduction, or abort the discount campaign altogether as inefficient. Controlling requires you to examine the objectives in a measurable manner. You essentially need to set standards, which guarantee you know exactly what you want to achieve and what counts as success or failure.
But controlling is also a function that due to the set of standards will ensure you have the ability to correct behaviors when they deviate from the standards. In essence, controlling is about quality monitoring. You are looking at the processes and ensuring they achieve the right things for the organization.
Why is controlling essential? If you notice the marketing campaign, for example, is not producing any new customers or leading to increased sales, you can re-tweak it to better attract customers. This could end up guaranteeing you meet the sales target at the end of the month.
- Functions of Management
With controlling, you are reducing the risk of failure and the impact of failing to meet your objectives. In the business world, measuring performance can be the difference between the successful and the failing companies.
Functions of Management - Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing and Controlling
Think about a start-up. Without standards and proper control, after three months all they know is whether they earned it or not. Was the success down to the product? Did the marketing help? How much did their social media strategy push sales? Was it all about the saving mechanisms they put in place?
In the end, understanding the reasons behind success or failure will help the business perform better. For controlling to be effective, you need to take the four steps of this specific function of management: These must be set with the organizational objectives in mind.
You look at the objectives and the plan you have set, creating a set of measurements that would tell you are on the right path. Your first measurement would be the team creating 10 shoes, but you could include other factors to the set of standards. You might look to reduce the downtime by ensuring problems are fixed within 30 minutes and add a new person in the chain to fasten the process by 10 minutes.
The monitoring process will depend on your standards and the ease of measurement.Functions of Management (Business studies class) 12th C.B.S.E
Part of the process can be performance reviews, actual quantifiable data and so on. The key is to start collecting the information from the start. The comparison helps you to identify the problem areas or notice patterns that are actually working more efficiently.
If the recovery team is not repairing the machinery quick enough, you can look deeper into it and find ways to boost the performance. On the other hand, you might notice the team is producing more shoes than you expected, which could help you revise your objectives. The functions are key to management in all levels, from the entry positions to higher roles of management.
Furthermore, each five functions — planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling — are linked to each other. Many aspects of modern organizations make integration difficult, including complexity, highly differentiated subunits and roles, poor informal relationships, size, and physical distance.
In addition, the work processes perspective provides new targets for improvement. Rather than focusing on structures and roles, managers address the underlying processes. An obvious advantage is that they closely examine the real work of the organization.
The results, however, have been mixed, and experts estimate that a high proportion of these programs have failed to deliver the expected gains. My analysis suggests several reasons for failure. Most improvement programs have focused exclusively on process redesign; the ongoing operation and management of the reconfigured processes have usually been neglected. Yet even the best processes will not perform effectively without suitable oversight, coordination, and control, as well as occasional intervention.
In addition, operational processes have usually been targeted for improvement, while their supporting administrative processes have been overlooked.
The underlying behavior patterns are normally so deeply embedded and recurrent that they are displayed by most organizational members. They also have enormous staying power. They are generalizations, distilled from observations of everyday work and have no independent existence apart from the work processes in which they appear. This makes them difficult to identify but explains their importance. Behavioral processes profoundly affect the form, substance, and character of work processes by shaping how they are carried out.
They are different, however, from organizational culture because they reflect more than values and beliefs. Behavioral processes are the sequences of steps used for accomplishing the cognitive and interpersonal aspects of work. New product development processes, for example, may have roughly similar work flows yet still involve radically different patterns of decision making and communication.
All involve the collection, movement, and interpretation of information, as well as forms of interpersonal interaction. In most cases, the associated behaviors are learned informally, through socialization and on-the-job experience, rather than through formal education and training programs.
Of all behavioral processes, decision making has been the most carefully studied. The roots go back to the research and writings of Chester Barnard and Herbert Simon, who argued that organizational decision making was a distributed activity, extending over time, involving a number of people. This, in itself, is still a surprising insight for many managers. All too often, they see decision making as their personal responsibility, rather than as a shared, dispersed activity that they must orchestrate and lead.
For the most part, the results of these studies have been equivocal. Efforts to produce a simple linear flow model of decision making — in the same way that work processes can be diagrammed using process flow charts — have had limited success.
Witte, for example, studied the purchase process for new computers and found that very few decisions — 4 of — corresponded to a standard, five-phase, sequential process. He concluded that simultaneous rather than sequenced processes were the norm: They cannot avoid evaluating these alternatives immediately, and in doing this, they are forced to a decision.
This is a package of operations. A second group of scholars adopted a more focused approach. Each studied a particular kind of decision, usually involving large dollar investments, to identify the constituent activities, subprocesses, and associated management roles and responsibilities, as well as the contextual factors shaping the process.
Much of this research has examined the resource allocation process, with studies of capital budgeting, foreign investments, strategic planning, internal corporate venturing, and business exit.
First, it has forced scholars to acknowledge the simultaneous, multilevel quality of decision processes. While sequential stages can be specified, they are incomplete as process theories and must be supplemented by detailed descriptions of the interaction of activities, via subprocesses, across organizational levels and through time. Bower, for example, identified three major components of the resource allocation process — definition the development of financial goals, strategies, and product-market plansimpetus the crafting, selling, and choice of projectsand determination of context the creation of structures, systems, and incentives guiding the process — and then went on to describe the linkage among these activities and the interdependent roles of corporate, divisional, and middle managers.
Second, this body of research focused attention on the way that managers shape and influence decision processes. While behavioral processes like decision making have great autonomy and persistence, they can, according to this line of research, be shaped and directed by managerial action. Another stream of research has explored the quality of decision making. Scholars have studied flawed decisions to better understand their causes, examined the factors supporting speedy decision making, and contrasted the effectiveness of comprehensive and narrow decision processes.
Janis, for example, citing foreign policy debacles such as the Bay of Pigs, noted that when members of a decision-making group want to preserve social cohesion and strive for unanimity, they may engage in self-censorship, overoptimism, and stereotyped views of the enemy, causing them to override more realistic assessments of alternatives.
Together, these studies have shown that decision-making processes are lengthy, complex, and slow to change. They involve multiple, often overlapping stages, engage large numbers of people at diverse levels, suffer from predictable biases and perceptual filters, and are shaped by the administrative, structural, and strategic context. Their effectiveness can be judged, using criteria such as speed, flexibility, range of alternatives considered, logical consistency, and results, and they are subject to managerial influence and control.