Tributary - Wikipedia
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem (or parent) A confluence, where two or more bodies of water meet together, usually refers to the joining of tributaries. The opposite to a tributary is a . On the Banks of the Ganga: When Wastewater Meets a Sacred River. Ann Arbor, MI: University Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press. Daley, J. India's Ganges and Yamuna rivers are given the rights of people. Smithsonian Mag, March. “THE PLACE WHERE THE HOLY GANGA MEETS YAMUNA..” Review of Prayag | Ganges, Yamuna, and Saraswati Rivers, Allahabad, India. Improve this .
Here the story of her descent to meet her beloved Krishna and to purify the world has been put into verse. The hymn also praises her for being the source of all spiritual abilities. And while the Ganges is considered an epitome of asceticism and higher knowledge and can grant Moksha or liberationit is Yamuna, who, being a holder of infinite love and compassion, can grant freedom, even from death, the realm of her elder brother.
- THE PLACE WHERE THE HOLY GANGA MEETS... - Triveni Sangam Allahabad
Vallabhacharya writes that she rushes down the Kalinda Mountain, and describes her as the daughter of Kalinda, giving her the name Kalindi, the backdrop of Krishna Leela. The text also talks about her water being of the colour of Lord Krishna, which is dark Shyam. Geological evidence indicates that in the distant past the Yamuna was a tributary of the Ghaggar River also known as the Vedic Sarasvati Riverbut that it later changed its course eastward due to a tectonic event, becoming a tributary of the Ganges.
Yamuna - Wikipedia
This may have led to the Sarasvati River drying up, the end of many Harappan civilisation settlements, and creation of the Thar desert. These rivers were revered throughout these kingdoms that flourished on their banks; since the period of Chandragupta II r. Further to the South, images of the Ganges and Yamuna are found amidst shrines of the Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas —and on their royal seals; prior to them, the Chola Empire also added the river into their architectural motifs.
Yamuna in Hinduism The goddess Yamuna The goddess of the river, also known as Yami, is the sister of Yamathe god of deathand the daughter of Suryathe Sun godand his wife Saranyu. The river Yamuna is connected to the religious beliefs surrounding Krishna and various stories of the two are found in Hindu religious textsespecially the Puranas. Krishna was taken across the Yamuna on the night of his birth.
When Vasudevacarrying Krishna in a basket, reached the river Yamuna, on the stormy night of Krishna's birth, Yamuna is said to have parted to make way for Vasudeva.
Krishna and the Gopis also used to play on the banks of the Yamunaji as children. Taj Mahal is situated on the banks of river Yamuna. Management[ edit ] The stretch of the river from its origin at Yamunotri to Okhla barrage in Delhi is called "Upper Yamuna". The river then skirts the Rajmahal Hills to the south and flows southeast to Farakka in central West Bengal state, at the apex of the delta.
West Bengal is the last Indian state that the Ganges enters, and, after it flows into Bangladesh, the Mahananda River joins it from the north. The westernmost distributaries of the delta are the Bhagirathi and the Hugli Hooghly rivers, on the east bank of which stands the huge metropolis of Kolkata Calcutta.
The Hugli itself is joined by two tributaries flowing in from the west, the Damodar and the Rupnarayan. The combined stream, there called the Padma, joins with the Meghna River above Chandpur.
The waters then flow through the delta region to the Bay of Bengal via innumerable channels, the largest of which is known as the Meghna estuary. Such changes have occurred in comparatively recent times, especially since In the Brahmaputra flowed past the city of Mymensingh ; it now flows more than 40 miles 65 km west of it before joining the Ganges.
The delta, the seaward prolongation of sediment deposits from the Ganges and Brahmaputra river valleys, is about miles km along the coast and covers an area of some 23, square miles 60, square km.
It is composed of repeated alternations of clays, sands, and marls, with recurring layers of peat, lignite, and beds of what were once forests. The new deposits of the delta, known in Hindi and Urdu as the khadarnaturally occur in the vicinity of the present channels. The southern surface of the Ganges delta has been formed by the rapid and comparatively recent deposition of enormous loads of sediment.
To the east the seaward side of the delta is being changed at a rapid rate by the formation of new lands, known as char s, and new islands. The western coastline of the delta, however, has remained practically unchanged since the 18th century. The rivers in the West Bengal area are sluggish; little water passes down them to the sea.
In the Bangladeshi delta region, the rivers are broad and active, carrying plentiful water and connected by innumerable creeks.
During the rains June to October the greater part of the region is flooded to a depth of 3 or more feet at least 1 metreleaving the villages and homesteads, which are built on artificially raised land, isolated above the floodwaters. Communication between settlements during that season can be accomplished only by boat. To the seaward side of the delta as a whole, there is a vast stretch of tidal mangrove forests and swampland.
The region, called the Sundarbansis protected by India and Bangladesh for conservation purposes. SundarbansMangrove trees in the Sundarbans. Monster eagle In certain parts of the delta there occur layers of peat, composed of the remains of forest vegetation and rice plants. In many natural depressions, known as bils, peat, still in the process of formation, has been used as a fertilizer by local farmers, and it has been dried and used as a domestic and industrial fuel.
Climate and hydrology The Ganges basin encompasses somesquare miles 1, square km and contains the largest river system on the subcontinent. The water supply depends partly on the rains brought by the southwesterly monsoon winds from July to October as well as on the flow from melting Himalayan snows in the hot season from April to June. Precipitation in the river basin accompanies the southwest monsoon winds, but it also comes with tropical cyclones that originate in the Bay of Bengal between June and October.
Only a small amount of rainfall occurs in December and January. The average annual rainfall varies from 30 inches mm at the western end of the basin to more than 90 inches 2, mm at the eastern end.
In the upper Gangetic Plain in Uttar Pradesh, rainfall averages about 30—40 inches [—1, mm]; in the Middle Ganges Plain of Bihar, from 40 to 60 inches [1, to 1, mm]; and in the delta region, between 60 and inches [1, and 2, mm]. The delta region experiences strong cyclonic storms both before the commencement of the monsoon season, from March to May, and at the end of it, from September to October. Some of those storms result in much loss of life and the destruction of homes, crops, and livestock.
One such storm, which occurred in Novemberwas of catastrophic proportions, resulting in deaths of at leastand possibly as many aspeople; another, in Aprilkilled someBetween the Yamuna River at Delhi and the Bay of Bengal, a distance of nearly 1, miles 1, kmthe elevation drops only some feet metres.
When Rivers Collide: 10 Confluences Around the World «TwistedSifter
Altogether the Ganges-Brahmaputra plains extend over an area ofsquare milessquare km. The alluvial mantle of the plain, which in some places is more than 6, feet 1, metres thick, is possibly not more than 10, years old.
Plant and animal life The Ganges-Yamuna area was once densely forested. Historical writings indicate that in the 16th and 17th centuries wild elephants, buffalo, bison, rhinoceroses, lions, and tigers were hunted there. Most of the original natural vegetation has disappeared from the Ganges basin, and the land is now intensely cultivated to meet the needs of an ever-growing population. Large wild animals are few, except for deer, boars, and wildcats and some wolves, jackals, and foxes.
Only in the Sundarbans area of the delta are some Bengal tigers, crocodiles, and marsh deer still found. Ganges river dolphin, or susu Platanista gangetica.
In the Bengal area common fish include featherbacks Notopteridae familybarbs Cyprinidaewalking catfishgouramis Anabantidaeand milkfish Chanidae. The Ganges river dolphin —or susu Platanista gangeticaa nearly sightless cetacean with highly developed sonar capabilities—can be found throughout the Ganges-Brahmaputra basin, but it is considered endangered because of encroaching human activity. Many varieties of birds are found, such as mynah birds, parrots, crows, kites, partridges, and fowls.
In winter, ducks and snipes migrate south across the high Himalayas, settling in large numbers in water-covered areas. People Ethnically, the people of the Ganges basin are of mixed origin.
In the west and centre of the basin they were originally descended from an early population—possibly speaking Dravidian or Austroasiatic languages—and were later joined by speakers of Indo-Aryan languages. In historical times Turks, Mongols, Afghans, Persians, and Arabs came from the west and intermingled with them.
To the east and south, especially in Bengal, peoples speaking Austroasiatic, Indo-Aryan, and Tibeto-Burman languages have joined the population over the centuries.Documentary of allahabad triveni sangam full videos
Europeans, arriving still later, did not settle or intermarry to any large extent. Kannauj on the Ganges, in central Uttar Pradesh north of Kanpurwas the capital of the feudal empire of Harshawhich covered most of northern India in the mid-7th century. During the Muslim era, which began in the 12th century, Muslim rule extended not only over the plain but over all Bengal as well.
Dhaka and Murshidabad in the delta region were centres of Muslim power. The British, having founded Calcutta Kolkata on the banks of the Hugli River in the late 17th century, gradually expanded their dominion up the valley of the Ganges, reaching Delhi in the midth century. A large number of cities have been built on the Gangetic Plain.