Differences Between Task-Oriented Leaders & Relational-Oriented Leaders | oculo-facial-surgery.info
Task-oriented leadership theory describes a leader that is motivated by Relational Leadership Styles Superior to Task Oriented Leadership Styles. The task-relationship model is defined by Forsyth as "a descriptive model of leadership which maintains that most leadership behaviors can be classified as. In addition, the school leaders with task-oriented behaviour were more relate to a relational approach, whereas banking leans towards a task-oriented . meaning to the leadership behavioural style of relations- and task-oriented behaviour.
For example, the leader rewards the performance of tasks and evaluates employees according to the relative value of their contributions to the accomplishment of group objectives. The task-oriented leader also applies disciplinary measures to correct unacceptable behavior. In addition, the degree to which an employee contributes to the accomplishment of group goals -- rather than personal goals -- determines the degree of work-related support he will receive from his manager.
Effects of Task Leadership A task-oriented leader often has a thorough understanding of business processes and procedures, which contributes to the appropriate delegation of work and the accurate and on-time completion of work tasks. In addition, a task-oriented leader imposes deadlines and standards on team members who may lack self-motivation, which contributes to the timely accomplishment of business objectives. However, the leader's apparent indifference to the personal concerns of employees might serve to demotivate employees and lead to personnel retention issues.
Relationship Leadership Unlike the task-oriented leader, the relationship-oriented leader exhibits support for and acceptance of their employees as individuals, rather than as production factors.
This, we would argue, enables the leadership to demonstrate effective behaviour for relations building and task achievement. As stated by Yulk Thus, school leadership effectiveness is likely to increase performance in teacher and student achievement. The Appalachia Educational Laboratory They model the leadership behavioural pattern as a 'reciprocal-effects model'.
They state that 'it reflects the reciprocal nature of the interaction of leadership, intervening variables, and student achievement, and suggest various interactions through which principals might exhibit leadership behaviour in schools over time'.
This instigates leadership maintenance and generates the mirror effect that enables the PSP parameters to appropriately maintain these variations in parameters through leadership competences. Perhaps Yulk concurs that the competency of leadership lies in understanding the situation by adopting a 'flexible leadership style' for effectiveness.
This study on leadership behaviour was framed as a case study to identify and explore the behavioural leadership style incorporating the relations- and task-oriented behaviour of primary school leaders in Finland.
The study uses behavioural leadership theory as developed in the work done at Ohio State University and the University of Michigan. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the dominant leadership behavioural style relations- or task-oriented in accommodating changes and development. This study aimed to identify these leadership behavioural styles through two research questions: What was the dominant leadership behavioural style - either relations- or task-oriented - implemented by school principals in schools during a time of change and development?
How was the leadership behavioural style initiated to accommodate changes and development in schools? Methodology This research is explored through a qualitative paradigm. This study explores examples of school leadership represented in a case study of the three primary schools in Finland.
Cases of each school's leadership were developed to understand leadership behavioural pattern in line with leadership behavioural theory, consisting of relations- and task-oriented behaviour. Theoretical constructs This qualitative exploration of leadership in Finnish primary schools uses leadership behavioural theory as the theoretical framework for this study.
Leadership behavioural theory was introduced after the traits theory of leadership and refined to include task-oriented and relations-oriented leadership behaviour. Leadership behavioural theory was explored by Ohio State University and the University of Michigan, with the development of the Leader Behavioural Description Questionnaire LBDQwhich has come to be widely accepted within the leadership studies discourse Stogdill The revised form of LBDQ developed by Ohio State strongly emphasised the two factorial definitions of 'consideration and initiation' Stogdillwhich were later studied as relations- and task-oriented behaviour.
LBDQ initially was constructed to establish the behavioural style of leadership with the organisational managers and the supervisors to describe the behaviour of leader. This exploration of leadership behavioural styles within Finnish primary schools is supported by task-oriented and relations-oriented probes similar to the LBDQ, but using a qualitative paradigm. This was obtained by constructing a factorial definition that incorporated the leadership description questionnaire that supported relations- and task-oriented behaviour, accordingly.
The description of the questionnaire was obtained by interviews to give a qualitative meaning.
This factorial definition was also applied to code the interview data that gave meaning to the leadership behavioural style of relations- and task-oriented behaviour. However, these two components of leadership behaviour are not mutually exclusive, but rather complement each other.
In accordance with the framework of leadership behavioural theory, this exploration of leadership is viewed as different cases with multiple examples representing each case in its own context. However, school leaders are the gap fillers, intertwining external and internal variations to harmonise the school contextual environment.
In this study, leadership behavioural theory was used to identify and explore relations- and task-oriented behaviour, and investigate the dominant leadership style in the case studies presented here. In addition, this study explores the leadership behavioural theory by analysing the school context that affects leadership and followership. Research tools and research participants This study was conducted using one-to-one in-depth interviews. Two interview schedules were designed separately to explore the leadership behavioural style.
One interview schedule was used to capture the perceptions of the three school leaders; and the other to capture the ideas of 10 teachers, one administrative staff member, two vice principals, and one special-education teacher from primary schools in Finland from different locations. Altogether, 17 participants were interviewed in order to understand the leadership behaviour through the perceptions of both leaders and followers in the primary schools.
This set of interview schedules enabled verification through a triangulation of the data collected from the different respondents. One-to-one interviews were conducted with different respondents from three primary schools for a minimum of an hour each, although many were extended for up to a maximum of 2 hours. Interviews were tape-recorded and later transcribed and translated for accuracy. Based on the LBDQ, qualitative descriptions were obtained from schools leaders and followers in the three schools in Finland.
The qualitative descriptive interview schedules were conducted as two scheduled interviews to obtain the perceptions of school's principals about their behaviour towards their followers while the other sets of interview descriptions were obtained to view the leadership behaviour from the perceptions of teachers, administrative staff, and a special-education teacher.
Both views were cross-verified to construct a leadership behavioural pattern by using the factorial definition to incorporate the relations- and task-oriented behaviour. Data analysis procedures The tape-recorded data from the interviews were carefully translated and analysed to explore patterns of leadership behavioural style.
The data were coded into two main themes: Data analysis also sought to identify a third theme, a mixture of both these leadership behavioural styles. The data from the interview respondents were also compared and contrasted to minimise the occurrence of misrepresentations. This comparison allowed a level of triangulated data sets within each case, which enhanced the validity and reliability of the analysis to understand the leadership behavioural pattern.
Interviews with the principals and schools actors were cross-verified before drawing conclusions. Data sets from each school were also compared in order to explore the case study.
Data triangulation analysis offered validation and reliability. This technique of data triangulation analysis contributed significantly to the validation of this investigation of leadership behavioural style. The triangulation analysis also offered similar views of respondents' answers and their reflections on leadership behaviour, which further enabled analysis of the behavioural patterns. The interview data were coded using short phrases and a symbolic summary to illustrate the leadership behavioural pattern, which consisted of relations, task, and a mixture of both.
In some cases, single words were coded to illustrate the leadership behavioural pattern, which was also observed during the study. However, observation was not the primary research tool, even though it offered huge advantages when transcribing and coding the interview data. This was followed by the display and reduction of data displaying, and the process of drawing conclusions, which further generated meaning from the data. With regard to ethical considerations, all key respondents remained anonymous and pseudonyms were given, such as principal, vice principal, teacher 1, teacher 2, teacher 3, teacher 4, special-education teacher, and administrative staff.
The schools were named as school A, school B, and school C. Results In this section, three primary school cases from Finland are illustrated to exemplify the leadership behavioural styles. The results of these cases are reflected by the key respondent's principles as leaders, teachers, vice principals, administrative staff, and special-education teachers.
The collaborative views reflect the triangulation analysis used to capture the leadership behavioural styles. The cases are divided between three schools' cases to address the research questions in line with the problem statement and the purpose of the study.
Leadership behavioural style leaping school forward case of school A In complementing leadership behaviour with skills and competencies, Goff Using trusted staff requires leadership to show consideration towards their staff's behavioural patterns to motivate them towards task accomplishment. Coming to know and understand the staff in a school organisation can be accomplished by getting involved with them and building good relational behaviour.
In the case of the principal of school A, her benevolent character led her to become successful and trusted as she initiated relations-oriented behaviour with her staff over time. The following quote illustrates her behavioural style: Moreover, the principal closely collaborated with the vice principal during the change, acting and speaking with openness, as well as sharing with every staff member. The vice principal states: There should be an open environment and we try to emphasis it by our own behaviour.
This behavioural pattern of the principal built a strong foundation of trust with her employees through this information sharing, as the vice principal mentions: She always takes responsibilities about the decision even those that are made by the staff or by me. Moreover, information is shared with those who are trusted. In an educational organisation, trust comes with an instrumental and value-based attitude.
Being trusted and able to trust people is not simple. Leadership's confidence and power to communicate a vision and give direction to trusted individuals and groups is important at a time of dramatic change. According to the administrative staff, the principal had an open policy of sharing information and trusting her staff, and she adds: This leads to an open social environment that further reflects a good organisational climate.
The relational behavioural pattern of the principal enabled the staff to share their problems even more openly. However, leadership behaviours are flexible in nature and influenced by the context and the intelligence of the leaders. The adaptation to a 'flexible leadership' Yulk behavioural pattern enables school leaders to implement a mixture of leadership styles.
The mixture of leadership styles, produced by the mixing of both task-oriented behaviour and relations-oriented behaviour, leads to excellent productivity. The vice principal reflects on the principal's behavioural style towards task and relations by mentioning that: The situational context of school A was to change the school into an international school. This change was introduced by the educational authorities. In order to bring about this development, and raise the school to international standards, the school leadership's role was focused on motivating and encouraging the school actors.
Driving them towards adapting to the changes required through both relations-oriented and task-oriented behaviour. However, many teachers had difficulty adapting. To harmonise the organisational climate, the principal's driving force was highly focused on collaboration by implementing a relations-oriented behavioural style.
The relations-oriented behaviour of the school leader motivated the staff to work. In other words, by showing consideration, and participating and supporting staff members, the principal showed effective relations-oriented behaviour.
According to teacher 3, the school principal was supportive towards them at their time of need and it contributed to their work values. In this regard, a flexible leadership approach is essential. Nevertheless, both task and relations are inseparable phenomena in an organisational setting. In addition, the behaviour of the followers also plays a vital role in shaping leadership behaviour. The leadership behavioural style changes according to the behavioural pattern of the followers.
Leadership behaviour is, therefore, closely associated with the followers' behavioural pattern. The relations-oriented behaviour of school A's principal was essential for team-building and bonding, in order to stimulate collaboration and drive. The principal's strategy towards relations-oriented behaviour was necessary in order to enhance the teamwork needed to overcome the restraints posed by the status quo.
Teacher 3 indicated the importance of the principal's role in the school as a mediator and collaborator. Having too much concern for employees can sometimes divert from real work being accomplished, and may create weakness rather than strengths. The principal's versatile behavioural approach to 'leaping towards' in order to achieve the vision of the educational authority, was initiated through bonding the relations with individuals and teams.
The leadership behavioural approach of delegating some of her tasks to trusted members also enabled the leap towards school succession.
Differences Between Task-Oriented Leaders & Relation-Oriented Leaders | Your Business
In addition, the vice principal mentioned that the delegation of authority to the members allowed her more time to concentrate on daily routine work during the school's developmental phase. The relations-oriented behaviour of the principal also demonstrated her competence in keeping the driving forces active by acknowledging the teachers.
This acknowledgement motivated the teachers to perform in order to keep up with the changing scenario. Team-building was important for the school leader, as it enabled her to accomplish the mission of internationalising the school. The participative and supportive nature of the principal also resulted in enhanced performance from staff, because being appreciated reinforced their motivation. He often has a bottom-line approach.
Differences Between Task-Oriented Leaders & Relational-Oriented Leaders
A relationship-oriented leader, on the other hand, tends to stress building relationships with his workers. His objective is to build rapport with employees so that they are motivated to work well together and to complete tasks.
He tends to place more emphasis on group harmony and culture. Influence Leaders generally need the ability to influence others to succeed. Task-oriented leaders tend to use a more autocratic approach to leadership. They often rely on position power, goal setting, results tracking, clear directives and pushing of employees.
Self-motivated workers tend to make a better fit with a task-oriented leader. A relationship-oriented leader uses empathy and relationships to influence. He believes that if employees see he genuinely cares about them as people, they are more likely to take direction and be inspired by his guidance.