Ancient Rome - The Late Republic (–31 bc) | oculo-facial-surgery.info
As Caesar advances on Rome, Pompey and his allies retreat south, ultimately abandoning Italy for Greece. Caesar cut a deal with Pompey and Crassus, enabling him to leave for ally of Pompey, who later developed a cordial relationship with Caesar. .. Quiz: How much do you depend on palm oil?. Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus usually known in English as Pompey /ˈpɒmpiː/ or Pompey the In mid BC, Pompey joined Marcus Licinius Crassus and Gaius Julius as the First Triumvirate, which Pompey's marriage to Caesar's daughter Julia Pompey made friendly proposals to Mithridates to test his disposition. Marcus Licinius Crassus is said to be the richest man in Rome and is also a senator of the by pressing business and work, which causes occasional rifts in his marriage. Crassus sees this as a test to see if he is ready to face Spartacus. . When Crassus learns of his son's capture by Pompey's messenger, he sends.
Pompey could stay on in Italy and govern his provinces by deputies.
But their cooperation was coming to an end. The death of Julia 54 destroyed the strongest bond between Pompey and Caesar, and Crassus suffered disastrous defeat and death in Mesopotamia. The compact existed no longer, but Pompey as yet showed no inclination to break with Caesar. Civil war Meanwhile, from outside the walls of Rome, Pompey watched the anarchy in the city becoming daily more intolerable. He was prepared to wait without committing himself until the Optimates found an alliance with him unavoidable.
He refused further offers from Caesar of a marriage alliance. There was talk in Rome as early as 54 of a dictatorship for Pompey. Street violence made it impossible to hold the elections. In January 52 Clodius was killed by armed followers of Titus Annius Milowhose candidacy for the consulship was being bitterly opposed by both Pompey and Clodius. Now both factions exploded into even greater violence. The senate house was burned down by the mob.
With no senior magistrates in office, the Senate had to call on Pompey to restore order. It was the hour he had waited for. He speedily summoned troops from Italy.
The nobles would not have him as dictator; they thought it safer to appoint him sole consul. He reformed procedure in the courts and produced a panel of respectable jurors. Another useful law enforced a five-year interval between tenure of magistracies in Rome and assumption of provincial commands. Several attempts were made in the years 51—50 to recall Caesar before the expiration of his second term in Gaul. He declared that he would not consider the suggestion that Caesar should become designated consul while still in command of his army.
When war came, the Senate was evenly divided between Caesar and Pompey.
Pompey the Great
The consulars were solidly for Pompey, although they saw him simply as the lesser evil. Late in 50 the consul Gaius Marcellus, failing to induce the Senate to declare Caesar a public enemy, visited Pompey with the consuls designate and placed a sword in his hands.
Pompey accepted their invitation to raise an army and defend the state. Caesar continued to offer compromise solutions while preparing to strike. On January 7, 49, the Senate finally decreed a state of war. Four days later Caesar crossed the Rubicon. Caesar, after a hazardous crossing in pursuit, found himself cut off from his base in Italy by sea and facing superior land forces.
At this juncture, Pompey, under pressure from his Optimate allies, decided for battle, a sensible enough decision if his opponent had not been a commander of genius. Pompey suffered a disastrous defeat on the plain of Pharsalus He fled from his camp as the enemy stormed it and made his way to the coast.
His supporters were to rally and involve Caesar in strenuous fighting in Africa, Spain, and the East for three more years, but Pompey did not live to play a part in this struggle. He moved on southward to Cilicia, Cyprus, and Egypt.
He decided to land at Pelusium and seek the assistance of Ptolemyhis former client. The king marched down to the coast, ostensibly to welcome him, but he and his counsellors had chosen not to risk offending the victorious Caesar.
As he prepared to step ashore, he was treacherously struck down and killed September 28, 48 bce. In the empire he acquired official respectability, and the greatness of his achievement was fully appreciated by the great writers. But there are few clearheaded or unbiased accounts of Pompey by his own contemporaries.
Yet he looked up to him for leadership and, in the moment of decision, joined him. But Pompey was neither a revolutionary nor a reactionary, willing to wreck the fabric of the commonwealth for the advantage of self or class. He expected a voluntary acceptance of his primacy but was to discover that the methods he had used to get his commands had permanently alienated the dominant nobility.
So year after year he had to play a passive role, covertly intriguing or waiting for successive occasions to arise that would force them to accept his leadership. Some thought his waiting game duplicity, others sheer political incompetence. He was an ineffective politician, not from incapacity for intrigue or ruthless action but from lack of candour and consistency in speech and action.
He was circumspect and thorough—the perfect administrator. Like many a more recent imperialist, he was satisfied with the ideal of efficient and clean-handed administration and justiceand many of his contemporaries believed that he went far to achieve that aim in his own practice.
Pompey, the wealthiest man of his age, invested his millions prudently; his landed estates were distributed throughout Italy in manageable units. King Iarbas of Numidiawho was an ally of Domitius, was captured.
Pompey restored Hiempsal IIinvaded Numidia and subdued it in forty days. When he returned to Africa, Sulla ordered him to send back the rest of his troops and remain there with one legion to wait for his successor.
This turned the soldiers who remained against Sulla. Pompey said that he would kill himself rather than go against Sulla. When Pompey returned to Rome everyone welcomed him. To outdo them, Sulla saluted him as Magnus the Great and ordered the others to give him this surname. Plutarch commented that Pompey "had scarcely grown a beard as yet.
Pompey replied that more worshiped the rising than the setting sun, implying that his power was on the increase, while Sulla's was on the wane.
His soldiers, who had not received as much of a share of the war booty as they expected threatened a mutiny, but Pompey said that he did not care and that he would rather give up his triumph. Pompey went ahead with his extra-legal triumph. However, in 79 BC, when Pompey canvassed for Lepidus and succeeded in making him a consul against Sulla's wishes, Sulla warned Pompey to watch out because he had made an adversary stronger than him. He left Pompey out in his will. However, Pompey opposed this and ensured Sulla's burial with honours.
Lepidus went back to Rome with another force and demanded a second consulship. However, a letter from Pompey announced that he had brought the war to an end without a battle. Brutus surrendered and Plutarch wrote that it was not known whether Brutus had betrayed his army or whether his army had gone over to Pompey.
Brutus was given an escort and retired to a town by the River Po, but, the next day, he was apparently assassinated on Pompey's orders. Pompey was blamed for this because he had written that Brutus had surrendered of his own accord and then wrote a second letter denouncing him after he had him murdered.
Lepidus withdrew to Sardiniawhere he fell ill and died, allegedly because he found out that his wife had had an affair. The guerrilla tactics of Sertorius had been wearing down Quintus Caecilius Metellus Piusone of Sulla's commanders, for three years. Pompey asked to be sent to reinforce Metellus. He had not disbanded his soldiers as he was supposed to. When the consul Quintus Lutatius Catulus ordered him to disband them he remained under arms near the city with various excuses until he was ordered to do so by the senate on a motion of Lucius Philippus.
A senator asked Philippus if he "thought it necessary to send Pompey out as proconsul. Pompey, however, was not a consul and had never held public office. His career seems to have been driven by desire for military glory and disregard for traditional political constraints. Pompey's arrival gave the men of Caecilius Metellus new hope and led to some local tribes, which were not tightly associated with Sertorius, changing sides. According to Appian, as soon as Pompey arrived, he marched to lift the siege of Lauron, here he suffered a substantial defeat at the hands of Sertorius himself, after the battle of Lauron Pompey was bottled up in his camp and could only sit and watch the enemy capture and burn the city.
Lauron had been a blow to Pompey's prestige. In a battle near Valentia Pompey defeated Perpenna and Herennius. Metellus then promptly defeated Hirtuleius see: Pompey wanted the glory of finishing of Sertorius for himself and Sertorius did not relish fighting two armies at once.
Sertorius defeated Afrianius, Pompey's lieutenant, on the left wing. Pompey was having the better of his opponent on the right. Sertorius had to intervene there himself, he rallied his men, stopped their retreat and counterattacked. Pompey was seriously wounded in the thigh, lost his horse and had to flee on foot.
Sertorius had to swing his troops round and come and save his camp, therefore he could not capitalize on his victory. The next day the two sides prepared for the continuation of the battle.
However, Metellus approached and Sertorius had to withdraw. Soon after this Sertorius defeated Pompey near Seguntia. Pompey lost nearly 6, men and Sertorius half of that. Metellus defeated Perpenna, who lost 5, men. According to Appian the next day Sertorius attacked his camp unexpectedly, but he had to withdraw because Pompey was approaching.
His men rallied and pushed the enemy back. Sertorius withdrew to Clunia, a mountain stronghold, and repaired its walls to lure the Romans into a siege and sent officers to collect troops from other towns. He then made a sortie, passed through the enemy lines and joined his new force. He resumed his guerrilla tactics and cut off the enemy's supplies with widespread raids.
Pirate tactics at sea disrupted maritime supplies. This forced the two Roman commanders to separate. Metellus went to Gaul. Pompey wintered among the Vaccaei and suffered shortages of supplies. When Pompey spent most of his private resources on the war he asked the senate for money, threatening to go back to Italy with his army if this was refused. The consul Lucius Licinius Lucullus was canvassing for the command of the Third Mithridatic Warbelieving that it would bring glory with little difficulty, fearing that Pompey would leave the Sertorian War to take on the Mithridatic one, Lucullus ensured that the money was sent to keep Pompey.
He and Pompey then descended from the Pyrenees to the River Ebro. Sertorius and Perpenna advanced from Lusitania again. According to Plutarch many of the senators and other high ranking men who had joined Sertorius were jealous of their leader. This was encouraged by Perpenna who aspired to the chief command. They secretly sabotaged him and meted out severe punishments on the Hispanic allies, pretending that this was ordered by Sertorius.Roman History - 1st Triumvirate: Crassus Pompey Caesar
Revolts in the towns were further stirred up by these men. Sertorius killed some allies and sold others into slavery.
Sertorius reacted with severe punishments and started using a bodyguard of Celtiberians instead of Romans. Moreover, he reproached his Roman soldiers for treachery. This aggrieved the soldiers because they felt that they were blamed for the desertion of other soldiers and because this was happening while they were serving under an enemy of the regime in Rome and therefore in a sense they were betraying their country through him.
Moreover, the Celtiberians treated them with contempt as men under suspicion. These facts made Sertorius unpopular; only his skill at command kept his troops from deserting en masse. Metellus took advantage of his enemy's poor morale, bringing many towns allied to Sertorius under subjection. Pompey besieged Palantia until Sertorius showed up to relieve the city. Pompey set fire to the city walls and retreated to Metellus.
Sertorius rebuilt the wall and then attacked his enemies who were encamped around the castle of Calagurris. They lost men. In 72 BC, there were only skirmishes. However, Metellus and Pompey advanced on several towns. Some of them defected and some were attacked. He was defeated continually. He became hot-tempered, suspicious and cruel in punishment. Perpenna began to fear for his safety and conspired to murder Sertorius.
He had gone to Hispania with the remnants of the army of Lepidus in Sardinia and had wanted to fight this war independently to gain glory. He had joined Sertorius reluctantly because his troops wanted to do so when they heard that Pompey was coming to Hispania. He wanted to take over the supreme command.
The native troops, especially the Lusitanians, who had given Sertorius the greatest support, were angry, too. Perpenna responded with the carrot and the stick: He secured the obedience of his troops, but not their true loyalty. Metellus left the fight against Perpenna to Pompey. The two skirmished for nine days. Then, as Perpenna did not think that his men would remain loyal for long, he marched into battle but Pompey ambushed and defeated him.
Frontinus wrote about the battle in his stratagems: Pompey put troops here and there, in places where they could attack from ambush. Then, pretending fear, he pulled back drawing the enemy after him. Then, when he had the enemy exposed to the ambuscade, he wheeled his army about. He attacked, slaughtering the enemy to his front and on both flanks  Pompey won against a poor commander and a disaffected army. Perpenna hid in a thicket, fearing his troops more than the enemy, and was eventually captured.
Perpenna offered to produce letters to Sertorius from leading men in Rome who had invited Sertorius to Italy for seditious purposes.
Pompey, fearing that this might lead to an even greater war, had Perpenna executed and burned the letters without even reading them. He showed a talent for efficient organisation and fair administration in the conquered province. This extended his patronage throughout Hispania and into southern Gaul.
Crassus was given eight legions and led the final phase of the war. He asked the senate to summon Lucullus and Pompey back from the Third Mithridatic War and Hispania respectively to provide reinforcements, "but he was sorry now that he had done so, and was eager to bring the war to an end before those generals came.
He knew that the success would be ascribed to the one who came up with assistance, and not to himself.
Pompey the Great | Roman statesman | oculo-facial-surgery.info
On hearing this, Crassus hurried to engage in the decisive battle, and routed the rebels. On his arrival, Pompey cut to pieces 6, fugitives from the battle. Pompey wrote to the senate that Crassus had conquered the rebels in a pitched battle, but that he himself had extirpated the war entirely.
He was asked to stand for the consulship, even though he was only 35 and thus below the age of eligibility to the consulship, and had not held any public office, much less climbed the cursus honorum the progression from lower to higher offices.
Livy noted that Pompey was made consul after a special senatorial decree, because he had not occupied the quaestorship and was an equestrian and did not have senatorial rank. In the Life of Pompey Plutarch wrote that Pompey "had long wanted an opportunity of doing him some service and kindness About half of the people feared that he would not disband his army and that he would seize absolute power by arms and hand power to the Sullans.
Pompey, instead, declared that he would disband his army after his triumph and then "there remained but one accusation for envious tongues to make, namely, that he devoted himself more to the people than to the senate In the Life of Crassus, Plutarch wrote that the two men differed on almost every measure, and by their contentiousness rendered their consulship "barren politically and without achievement, except that Crassus made a great sacrifice in honour of Hercules and gave the people a great feast and an allowance of grain for three months".
Pompey did not react, but Crassus "clasped him by the hand" and said that it was not humiliating for him to take the first step of goodwill. Plutarch wrote that "Crassus, for all his self-approval, did not venture to ask for the major triumph, and it was thought ignoble and mean in him to celebrate even the minor triumph on foot, called the ovation a minor victory celebrationfor a servile war.
In Appian's account there was no disbanding of armies. The two commanders refused to disband their armies and kept them stationed near the city, as neither wanted to be the first to do so.
Pompey said that he was waiting the return of Metellus for his Spanish triumph; Crassus said that Pompey ought to dismiss his army first. Initially, pleas from the people were of no avail, but eventually Crassus yielded and offered Pompey the handshake.
As part of the constitutional reforms Sulla carried out after his second civil warhe revoked the power of the tribunes to veto the senatus consulta the written advice of the senate on bills, which was usually followed to the letterand prohibited ex-tribunes from ever holding any other office. Ambitious young plebeians had sought election to this tribunate as a stepping stone for election to other offices and to climb up the cursus honorum.
Therefore, the plebeian tribunate became a dead end for one's political career. He also limited the ability of the plebeian council the assembly of the plebeians to enact bills by reintroducing the senatus auctoritas, a pronouncement of the senate on bills that, if negative, could invalidate them. The reforms reflected Sulla's view of the hated plebeian tribunate as a source of subversion that roused the "rabble" the plebeians against the aristocracy.
Naturally, these measures were unpopular among the plebeians, the majority of the population. Plutarch wrote that Pompey "had determined to restore the authority of the tribunate, which Sulla had overthrown, and to court the favour of the many" and commented that, "There was nothing on which the Roman people had more frantically set their affections, or for which they had a greater yearning, than to behold that office again.
In 'The Life of Crassus', Plutarch did not mention this repeal and, as mentioned above, he only wrote that Pompey and Crassus disagreed on everything and that as a result their consulship did not achieve anything. Yet, the restoration of tribunician powers was a highly significant measure and a turning point in the politics of the late Republic. This measure must have been opposed by the aristocracy and it would have been unlikely that it would have been passed if the two consuls had opposed each other.
Crassus does not feature much in the writings of the ancient sources. Unfortunately, the books of Livy, otherwise the most detailed of the sources, which cover this period have been lost. However, the Periochae, a short summary of Livy's work, records that "Marcus Crassus and Gnaeus Pompey were made consuls Campaign against the pirates[ edit ] A denarius of Pompey minted BC Piracy in the Mediterranean became a large-scale problem. A large network of pirates coordinated operations over wide areas with large fleets.
According to Cassius Dio, many years of war contributed to this. Many war fugitives joined them. Pirates were more difficult to catch or break up than bandits. The pirates pillaged coastal fields and towns. Rome was affected through shortages of imports and in the supply of corn, but the Romans did not pay proper attention to the problem.
Cassius Dio wrote that these operations caused greater distress for Rome's allies. It was thought that a war against the pirates would be big and expensive and that it was impossible to attack all the pirates at once or to drive them back everywhere. As not much was done against them, some towns were turned into pirate winter quarters and raids further inland were carried out.
Many pirates settled on land in various places and relied on an informal network of mutual assistance. Towns in Italy were also attacked, including Ostiathe port of Rome: The pirates seized important Romans and demanded large ransoms. This suggested that Mithridates fostered piracy as a means to weaken the Romans. Plutarch also thought that with the civil wars in Rome the Romans left the sea unguarded, which gave the pirates the confidence to lay waste islands and coastal cities in addition to attacking ships at sea.
Piracy spread from its original base in Cilicia on the southern coast of modern Turkey. The pirates also seized and ransomed some towns. Men of distinction also got involved in piracy. Plutarch claimed that pirates had more than 1, ships, that they captured towns and plundered temples in Greece and sacred and inviolable sanctuaries, listing fourteen of them. He cited the praetors Sextilius and Bellinus and the daughter of Antonius among the important Romans who were seized for a ransom.
The pirates also mocked their captives if they were Romans. Piracy spread over the whole of the Mediterranean, making it unnavigable and closed to trade.
This caused scarcity of provisions. The destitute people who lost their livelihood became pirates. At first, they scoured the sea with a few small boats. As the war dragged on they became more numerous and used larger ships. When the war ended piracy continued. They sailed in squadrons. They besieged towns or took them by storm and plundered them.
They kidnapped rich people for a ransom. The ragged part of the Cilician coast became their main area for anchorage and encampment and the Crags of Cilicia the promontory of Coracesium became their main base. It also attracted men from PamphyliaPontusCyprusSyria and elsewhere in the east.
There were quickly tens of thousands of pirates and they dominated the whole Mediterranean. They defeated some Roman naval commanders, even off the coast of Sicily. The sea became unsafe. This disrupted trade and some lands remained untilled, leading to food shortages and hunger in Rome. Eliminating such a scattered and large force from no particular country and of an intangible and lawless nature seemed a difficult task.
Parts of Cilicia Pedias became Roman territory. Only a small part of that area became a Roman province. He won several naval victories off Cilicia and occupied the coasts of nearby Lycia and Pamphylia. He received his agnomen of Isaurus because he defeated the Isauri who lived in the core of the Taurus Mountainswhich bordered on Cilicia. He incorporated Isauria into the province of Cilicia Pedias.