The item Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire was evaluated in two . for each of the assumed process characteristics of repetitive negative thinking: (1a) .. Results showed a satisfactory test–retest correlation for the PTQ total score (rtt . Mar 5, that would explain this as the unconscious processes that really guide our lives . We perseverate by doing what we know how to do, what feels familiar and prompted to self-affirm by thinking and writing about what is important to them, particularly in relation to monitoring our progress towards goals. May 20, It helps me process and it's part of how I think through things and come up No processing is happening, I'm not progressing through a thought pattern, it is actually helped clear up some friction in my relationship with Nee.
Abstract Repetitive negative thinking RNT has been found to be involved in the maintenance of several types of emotional problems and has therefore been suggested to be a transdiagnostic process.
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However, existing measures of RNT typically focus on a particular disorder-specific content. In this article, the preliminary validation of a content-independent self-report questionnaire of RNT is presented.
Results of confirmatory factor analyses across samples supported a second-order model with one higher-order factor representing RNT in general and three lower-order factors representing 1 the core characteristics of RNT repetitiveness, intrusiveness, difficulties with disengagement2 perceived unproductiveness of RNT and 3 RNT capturing mental capacity.
High internal consistencies and high re-test reliability were found for the total scale and all three subscales. The validity of the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire was supported by substantial correlations with existing measures of RNT and associations with symptom levels and clinical diagnoses of depression and anxiety.
Results suggest the usefulness of the new measure for research into RNT as a transdiagnostic process.
Evidence supporting this view comes from four types of studies. First, self-report questionnaires measuring different types of RNT mainly worry vs.
This supports the view that these questionnaires measure more or less the same process. Third, the experimental induction of different types of RNT typically worry vs. Taken together, these findings suggest that it may be promising to investigate RNT across disorders rather than using a disorder-focused perspective. However, research into RNT as a transdiagnostic process is complicated by the fact that current definitions and measures of this variable are mostly focused on a specific content and are therefore disorder-specific.
We suggest that a transdiagnostic definition of RNT would need to be focused on its characteristic process e. Despite considerable theoretical and empirical progress in this field see e.
Therefore, it appears premature to include variables such as abstractness of thinking into a definition of dysfunctional RNT. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The current study investigated the impact of worry and brooding as moderators of the tripartite model of depression and anxiety TMDA.
We hypothesized that both types of perseverative thinking would moderate the association between negative affectivity NA and both anxiety and depression. Complete data sets for this questionnaire survey were obtained from students. Overall, results from path analyses supported the assumptions of the TMDA, in that NA was a non-specific predictor for both depression and anxiety whilst lack of positive affectivity PA was related to depression only.
Unexpectedly, perseverative thinking had an effect on the dependency of negative and positive affectivity. Worry was a significant moderator for the path NA—anxiety. All other hypothesized associations were only marginally significant. Alternative pathways as well as methodological implications regarding similarities and differences of the two types of perseverative thinking are discussed.
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In this model, anxiety and depression symptoms share a non-specific component that encompasses general affective distress negative affectivity, NA. The syndromes can be distinguished by physiological hyperarousal PH on the one hand, which is assumed to be specific for anxiety, and the relative absence of positive affectivity PA on the other hand, believed to be specific for depression.
The model is both descriptive and prospective by explicating patterns of affectivity that predispose individuals to develop the respective disorders.
The TMDA has generally received good empirical support, with the strongest evidence coming from factor analytic studies across a variety of populations, for example child, undergraduate, community, and clinical samples Watson et al. Nevertheless, there are also reports on inconsistencies and limitations of the model.
For instance, the proposed specific role of low PA or anhedonia for the development of depressive symptoms is questionable as low PA is a factor in depression but also in some forms of anxiety, i. Following this view, anxious and depressive symptoms can be differentiated by unique cognitive contents. In a meta-analytic review, Beck and Perkins evaluated the evidence for this hypothesis.
This was true for specific depressive contents across studies, while anxious cognitive content shared equal variance with depressive and anxious symptomatology. Also, in 5 out of the 13 studies included in the meta-analysis, anxious and depressive cognitive content was stronger interrelated than anxious and depressive symptoms, which weakens the hypothesis further. It can be argued that there are no cognitions that are truly specific to all anxiety disorders, emphasizing the problem of the heterogeneity of anxiety disorders.
Taken together, these results suggest that cognitive content alone might not be sufficient to explain depression and anxiety symptomatology.