Karlheinz Stockhausen - Wikipedia
Barry Bergstein; Miles Davis and Karlheinz Stockhausen: A Reciprocal Relationship, The Musical Quarterly, Volume 76, Issue 4, 1 December , Pages. Barry Bergstein; Miles Davis and Karlheinz Stockhausen: A Reciprocal Relationship, The Musical Quarterly, Volume 76, Issue 4, 1 December. Miles Davis and Karlheinz Stockhausen: A Reciprocal Relationship Author(s): Barry Bergstein Reviewed work(s): Source: The Musical.
The latter also exists in a version with partially improvising soloists, and the third of its four "regions" in a version with orchestra Stockhausen-Verlag At this time, Stockhausen also began to incorporate pre-existent music from world traditions into his compositions Kohl93—95; Stockhausen Texte4, — Telemusik was the first overt example of this trend Kohl In the following year, he created Fresco for four orchestral groups, a Wandelmusik "foyer music" composition Maconie This was intended to be played for about five hours in the foyers and grounds of the Beethovenhalle auditorium complex in Bonnbefore, after, and during a group of in part simultaneous concerts of his music in the auditoriums of the facility Maconie— This had precedents in two collective-composition seminar projects that Stockhausen gave at Darmstadt in and In lectures such as "Music in Space" from Stockhausen Texte1: His idea was a spherical space which is fitted all around with loudspeakers.
In the middle of this spherical space a sound-permeable, transparent platform would be suspended for the listeners. They could hear music composed for such standardized spaces coming from above, from below and from all points of the compass. Stockhausen Texte1: The pavilion theme was "gardens of music", in keeping with which Bornemann intended "planting" the exhibition halls beneath a broad lawn, with a connected auditorium "sprouting" above ground.
Initially, Bornemann conceived this auditorium in the form of an amphitheatrewith a central orchestra podium and surrounding audience space. Although Stockhausen and Piene's planned multimedia project, titled Hinab-Hinauf, was developed in detail Stockhausen Texte3: According to Stockhausen's biographer, Michael Kurtz, "Many visitors felt the spherical auditorium to be an oasis of calm amidst the general hubbub, and after a while it became one of the main attractions of Expo " Kurtz Sometimes, as in Mantra and the large orchestral composition with mime soloists, Inori, the simple formula is stated at the outset as an introduction.
He continued to use this technique e. Some works from the s did not employ formula technique—e. Two such pieces, Tierkreis "Zodiac", —75 and In Freundschaft In Friendship,a solo piece with versions for virtually every orchestral instrumenthave become Stockhausen's most widely performed and recorded compositions Anon. This dramatic simplification of style provided a model for a new generation of German composers, loosely associated under the label neue Einfachheit or New Simplicity Andraschke The best-known of these composers is Wolfgang Rihmwho studied with Stockhausen in — Other large works by Stockhausen from this decade include the orchestral Trans and two music-theatre compositions utilizing the Tierkreis melodies: Musik im Bauch "Music in the Belly" for six percussionistsand the science-fiction "opera" Sirius —77 for eight-channel electronic music with soprano, bass, trumpet, and bass clarinet, which has four different versions for the four seasons, each lasting over an hour and a half Stockhausen-Verlag24— Licht Between andStockhausen composed seven operas in a cycle titled Licht: Die sieben Tage der Woche "Light: The Seven Days of the Week" Maconie— Each of these characters dominates one of the operas Donnerstag [Thursday], Samstag [Saturday], and Montag [Monday], respectivelythe three possible pairings are foregrounded in three others, and the equal combination of all three is featured in Mittwoch Wednesday Kohl Stockhausen's conception of opera was based significantly on ceremony and ritual, with influence from the Japanese Noh theatre Stockhausen, Conen, and Hennlich, as well as Judeo-Christian and Vedic traditions Bruno Inat the time of the composition of Aus den sieben Tagen, Stockhausen had read a biography by Satprem about the Bengali guru Sri Aurobindo Guerrieriand subsequently he also read many of the published writings by Aurobindo himself.
The title of Licht owes something to Aurobindo's theory of " Agni " the Hindu and Vedic fire deitydeveloped from two basic premises of nuclear physics; Stockhausen's definition of a formula and, especially, his conception of the Licht superformula, also owes a great deal to Sri Aurobindo's category of the "supramental" Peters Similarly, his approach to voice and text sometimes departed from traditional usage: Characters were as likely to be portrayed by instrumentalists or dancers as by singers, and a few parts of Licht e.
The seven operas were not composed in "weekday order" but rather starting apart from Jahreslauf inwhich became the first act of Dienstag with the "solo" operas and working toward the more complex ones: Stockhausen had dreams of flying throughout his life, and these dreams are reflected in the Helikopter-Streichquartett the third scene of Mittwoch aus Lichtcompleted in In it, the four members of a string quartet perform in four helicopters flying independent flight paths over the countryside near the concert hall.
The sounds they play are mixed together with the sounds of the helicopters and played through speakers to the audience in the hall.
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Videos of the performers are also transmitted back to the concert hall. The performers are synchronized with the aid of a click tracktransmitted to them and heard over headphones Stockhausen c The first performance of the piece took place in Amsterdam on 26 Juneas part of the Holland Festival Stockhausen c The work has also been recorded by the Arditti Quartet.
Although Stockhausen's music had been used for films previously most notably, parts of Hymnen in Nicolas Roeg 's Walkabout inthis was the first time he had been asked to provide music specially for the purpose. He adapted 21 minutes of material taken from his electronic music for Freitag aus Licht, calling the result Zwei Paare Two Couplesand the Brothers Quay created their animated film, which they titled In Absentia, based only on their reactions to the music and the simple suggestion that a window might be an idea to use Anon.
When, at a preview screening, Stockhausen saw the film, which shows a madwoman writing letters from a bleak asylum cell, he was moved to tears. The Brothers Quay were astonished to learn that his mother had been "imprisoned by the Nazis in an asylum, where she later died.
Klang Stockhausen After completing Licht, Stockhausen embarked on a new cycle of compositions based on the hours of the day, Klang "Sound".
Twenty-one of these pieces were completed before Stockhausen's death Stockhausen-Verlag49— The first four works from this cycle are First Hour: Himmelfahrt Ascensionfor organ or synthesizer, soprano and tenor — ; Second Hour: Freude Joy for two harps ; Third Hour: The Fifth Hour, Harmonien Harmoniesis a solo in three versions for flute, bass clarinet, and trumpet Stockhausen-Verlag The Sixth through Twelfth hours are chamber-music works based on the material from the Fifth Hour Stockhausen-Verlag The Thirteenth Hour, Cosmic Pulsesis an electronic work made by superimposing 24 layers of sound, each having its own spatial motion, among eight loudspeakers placed around the concert hall Stockhausen a.
Hours 14 through 21 are solo pieces for bass voice, baritone voice, basset-horn, horn, tenor voice, soprano voice, soprano saxophone, and flute, respectively, each with electronic accompaniment of a different set of three layers from Cosmic Pulses Stockhausen-Verlag Theories[ edit ] Stockhausen lecturing on Inori in March In the s and early s, Stockhausen published a series of articles that established his importance in the area of music theory.
His most celebrated article is " In particular, this article develops 1 a scale of twelve tempos analogous to the chromatic pitch scale, 2 a technique of building progressively smaller, integral subdivisions over a basic fundamental duration, analogous to the overtone series3 musical application of the concept of the partial field time fields and field sizes in both successive and simultaneous proportions, 4 methods of projecting large-scale form from a series of proportions, 5 the concept of "statistical" composition, 6 the concept of "action duration" and the associated "variable form", and 7 the notion of the "directionless temporal field" and with it, "polyvalent form" Stockhausen Texte1: Miles and Davis Karlheinz Stockhausen The splicing editing a jazz performance a new frontier and of was created Davis.
Davis's liveperformances always had by incorporated the conceptofcontinuous this sets;now he beganto integrate idea intohis recordings. As soon as the musicians entered studio, recording the the machine and beganrolling did not stopuntileveryone left. When the recording session was over, reels whitfour, Then, after sixty-minute of tapehad been recorded.
Macerostates, tookthe eight "I eightand a halfminutes and a halfminute side in stretches tookthe little and bands,repeated themoverand overagainin different and stretching themout spots untilthere was approximately seventeen eighteen or minutes each on side.
Ifyoulistencarefully, whatI am talking you'llunderstand about. The opening written keyboardist Zawinul, peris theme, by Josef formed Davis on trumpet WayneShorter soprano and on saxoby The use ofelectronic instruments and fiveat once is four phone.
Davis usesprecompositionalsketches, and He improvisation, postsession editing. The is hypnotic is editedonto theend ofthe side, and melody pulseless the section called "Its aboutTime. After splice the and tempochange,thereis a Davis solo whichis bluesderived see Ex. The solo is followed chords builtoffourths, whicheventuby allygivewayto bassostinatos. Davis'sworkBitches in recorded August, six months Brew,afterIn a SilentWay, illustrates concern with electro-acoustic his effectsand Africanretentions.
The integration electro-acoustic of effects was renderedthroughthe use of devices such as an echoplex. An echoplex causes a note or patternplayed to repeat itselfimmediately. It consistsof a tape-loop device that can be set to recordand playbackMusical The Quarterly once or an infinite number thus, simultaneously; a notecouldrepeat or of times, a or than immediately after delay,and moresoftly louder note. Ringmodulators werealso usedto createthenew the original his fast sound.
Davis altered trumpet byplaying cascading runs style toward extreme was to the His trumpet wired an amplihighregister. This devicegave Davis the ability soundmorelikea rock manner. Moments various of Telemusik contains thirty-two Structurally, withthe stroke a Japanese of instrument. The from the in of Moments derived are durations seconds the thirty-two instruments selected Fibonacciseries.
Davis'suse of three gives 11 drum to thesessiona rhythmic complexity, comparable African such When coupledwithan auxiliary ensembles. Both composersare stretching bounds of comcrossdevices and integrating position by exploringelectro-acoustic culturalinfluences. Miles Davis Karlheinz and StockhausenProcess Composition ofintuitive fifteen In ,Stockhausen composed text-compositions under title den the Aus sieben that music havebeenpublished Tagen; to on of in turn, seem havehadan effect Davis.
The tenth they, fifteen SetSailfor Sun,is an example prothe of Stockhausen's texts, on that in which cessmusic, places emphasis aspects unfold perforthe score.
Miles Davis and Karlheinz Stockhausen: A reciprocal relationship
MilesDavisseems havehadhisownnotions to about performer realization reinforcedStockhausen's of by theory process composition.
In statements thesubject, on Davishasrevealed strikingly a similar to Stockhausen's: The similarity between Stockhausen's symbolic notation of a spiral and Davis's conception of circularwritingis striking, as is theirshared conceptualizationof time.
He wanted to playit solo. He's saying, 'Don't playwhatyour fall fingers into. Don't He to playwhatyougo for. It was almost conceived like a Haikukindof thing a or point Zen thing wherethe master a coupleofwords and thestudents says "16 getenlightened.
Intuitionand ImprovisationThereis an important connection between that compositions employ and whatStockhausen termed as a formal has intuiconcept process musicborders and overlaps on withimprovisation tivemusic. Intuitive to and is central the artofbothDavis and Stockhausen. Stockhausen with voiceddissatisfaction musicians who have becomeliving tape from another.
Stockhausen to jazz pointed free and Indianmusicas precursors but also to his concept, notedthatthesetraditions are governed by "A He rulesand frameworks usedin their they improvisation. It goesfar Intuitive musicis no longer traditions.
The outcome of intuitionis based on the reciprocalfeedbackor attunementamong the groupof performers. A comparisonof Stockhausen's intuitiveadvances, includingthe of trainingand performing a small group,with Davis's approach yieldsMiles Davis Karlheinz and Stockhausen similarities. Dave discusses instructions how to the Saxophonist Liebman andinteraction within bandmade the in Daperformers performing a unique "Miles one vis'sgroup experience: Milescreates like But an through up overall mood where eachsolois justa little ofa larger part.
So thething to givetheessence themusiciansout creating their for parts them. The bestmusician is one who could immediately whathe has heard,either the on play find radio-any tune-or who can immediately thepitchofa birdand thattoo. But thenthenextstepafter a imitator play you're wonderful is thatof transforming youimitated what before. You first absorb and thentransform and thisis very it, important. The band memberswere all former studentsat the California Instituteof the Arts.
The writteninstructions mentionedpreviously were performed the regularfive-player by ensemble, plus two additional players,one on percussionand the other on recorders.
The regularmembersincluded two percussionists,The transformation vitaltoStockhausen's intuition very is like process theMilesDavisconcept giving essence themusicians of the to withoutcreating parts. Sonicandtimbral similarities inherent bothStockhausen's are in SetSailfor Sun andthefourth ofMilesDavis's the side Agharta and Both intuition, areofan compositions process, apply nature.
Negative in The Bandwasan Jack TheMusical Quarterlya saxophonist, a pianist synthesist, a performer regulated and and who filters. Ceylon, cycle with ornate two an ofintuitive includes pages "festive music, rhythm" for drum Ceylonese two-headed a composed theKandy specifically drum with fingers handin a similar the and manner cylindrical played on theKandy Stockhausen chants to Indian drum, tablas.
Thoughmany duction Stockhausen's to journalists the to it had nothing do withStockhausen, they neglect significance to In ofhis Telemusik. Davisdeveloped interest Stockhausen's through Britan in music the ishcomposer Buckmaster, gavehima recording Paul who that included Stockhausen's Telemusik Mixtur.
Carr and Ian that reports Davis"satupstairs a whole listening this for to andhadit record, day At this time Daviswaspreparing a recording for session. Buckmaster's was music suggestion to usethenonregular out-oftemporal time which Davishadusedin hisrecent and passagesrecordings which were found passages Stockhausen's Thesepasalso in in work.
Therewouldbe a bassfigure, drum a a that figure, drum rhythm was tablaand congarhythm a coupleofkeyboard and notated, phrasesthe blaring through wholehouse. IfMileswantedit to be morebouncing raunchy or rhythmiof cally,he wouldsignify a characteristic by shrugging the shoulders.
It is a studyin contrapuntalrhythm, which assignsspecificparts of the drumset to specificpartsof the beat. The cross-cultural contextOn "Black Satin"and"Mr.
Freedom final X" tracks, respecon sides andtwofrom the one On CornerDavisapplies Afritively, can andIndian Ifoneplays select ofTelemusik and concepts.
Freedom consecutively, similaritytheuseofAfrican the in X" andIndian musics becomes In each apparent. Telemusik, ofthethirtytwoMoments with stroke a Japanese the of and begins instrument, theMoments a form-making marked percussion are found in cycle by Oriental musics. Overthetal,the applies thetal-howmany line tehaiis played: MilesDavismetthechallenge assimilating classical of the Indian tablas added and them a hybrid Western to of Afrirock, styles-jazz, and free The influences occur that can,Latin, other forms.
Instead continuously the of solos, the Davis of playing trumpet, devoted segments therecording long to the Davissaid,"It'sjustabout session directing ensemble. We haveAfrican an eastern andmelosection, drums, I the are and times things the dies,although melodies shorter most. In melody haveusually I and somewhere before I usepolyrhythms thingswrite so be might in features sections which in thebassordrums. Found Elements were of and music The influencesrock popular during widespread in new and electric MilesDavis's period evident hiscombining rhyththe with This sonorities.Fabjan Ceka - Comedy
While Davis incorporated sounds use ofshort-wave a musicthatenriched an and ofrock,funk, pop within exoticworld all Stockhausen musicfrom overtheworldin employed jazz context,Davis Karlheinz Stockhausen Miles and and Telemusik Hymnen Kurzwellen usesthe found felt whichStockhausen "opensthe of material short-wave radios, be of to musicians a wholeuniverse sounds. Kurzwellen intended primarily a in whichenlightenment comeforbothplayers may journey spiritual outof received from from channeling impulses the and listeners side.
The found who has composed sounds. Stockthe never short-wavebands, reveals hausenreports, more more Whatcanbe more world-wide, ego-transcending, allmomentous thebroadcasts than more universal more and embracing, of How in take material?
This interest found soundsis compasitionon preexistent on musicas new source rableto Davis'sreliance rockand popular linkwiththefound For was a direct sounds of material. Davis toldhis guitarists Hendrix, Stone, and James Sly Jimi in or thatiftheylikeHendrix Sly, theyshouldplaysomething that Brown weresingled out veinjustto open it up. Sly Stone and James contributed creating to that becausetheygreatly rhythmic grooves retentions withAmerican funk and blues.
Davis mixedAfrican the of bass to employed Sly Stone bass application slap and funk his rhythm sectionvocabulary. Graham's funk a sixteenth-note His use of feel. Funk refers to specifically bass and drumpatterns. A funkbass line is the repetitionof highlysyncopatedbass figures that are often TheMusical Quarterlywith notes. Within context, would up this set 3 alternating metric with three simultaneous patterns a resulting interrelationship the and This among horns, guitar, drums.
Harmonically,the use of Hendrix-style or chords and shuffle boogie rhythms became standardfareforany who joined the Davis band. The work Yearslauf The four devilpiece. The plotconcerns operascene,a ballet,or a concert that the of march time. It was comish temptations interrupt ritual NationalTheater Tokyo and featured dancers posedfortheJapanese withadditional of actors and musicians the Imperial GagakuEnsembleMusical The Quarterly Two versions thepiece exist;it maybe performed of and assistants.
Japanese uses and DeutscheGrammophon instruments recording Western Gunter includes jazz musician the Hempel. The piece has been said to of "be making ironic an both commentary on thenature the western of time,and on the implication Japanese of assimilation organization ofa Western culture the clock.
Each temptation starts again. The fourth of is a recording whatStockhausen labels"soft, temptation as in a night club. Focus on theTrumpetin work. He scores The trumpet prominent muchofStockhausen's is with usessolo brassinstruments, often but forgroups trumpets other of devices. He begins incredibly hair-raising to solo.