theory proposes that motivation is comprised of four perceived relationships that, in . Relationship between IS&C and Other Theories, Styles, and Behaviors of instance, meta-analytic evidence suggests that transformational leadership and .. This type of leadership is task related and is conceptually similar to initiating. House and Mitchell () defined four types of leader behaviors or styles: Consideration - relationship behaviors, such as respect and trust. Leadership Styles (4) · What is Leadership? A leadership style is a narrow and specific behaviour compared to a model or philosophy. influenced by the leader's personality, the aims of the leader, and relationship with followers. ' toolkit' - it is a relatively tightly defined description of a particular type of leadership.
Determine the employee and environmental characteristics Select a leadership style Focus on motivational factors that will help the employee succeed Employee Characteristics Employees interpret their leader's behavior based on their needs, such as the degree of structure they need, affiliation, perceived level of ability, and desire for control.
Leadership Styles: Overview - oculo-facial-surgery.info
For example, if a leader provides more structure than what they need, they become less motivated. Thus, a leader needs to understand their employees so they know how to best motivate them.
Task and Environmental Characteristics Overcoming obstacles is a special focus of path-goal theory. If an obstacle becomes too strong, then the leader needs to step in and help the employee select a path to work around it. Some of the more difficult task characteristics that often arise are: Design of the task - The design of the task might call for the leader's support. For example, if the task is ambiguous, then the leader might have to give it more structure or an extremely difficult task might call for leader support.
Leader Behavior or Style The independent variables of Path-Goal Theory are the leader's behavior — the leader adjusts her style of behavior to the employee and task characteristics so that the employee's motivation is to excel at their goal. House and Mitchell defined four types of leader behaviors or styles: Directive, Supportive, Participative, and Achievement explained in detail below. They are based on two factors that were identified by an Ohio State University study behaviors Stogdill, The first behavior listed below, Directive, is based on initiating structure.
The other three achievement, participative, and supportive are based upon consideration. The four path-goal types of leader behaviors are: The leader informs her followers on what is expected of them, such as telling them what to do, how to perform a task, and scheduling and coordinating work.
Bass extended the work of Burns by explaining the psychological mechanisms that underlie transformational and transactional leadership. Bass built on Burns work and described transformational leadership as a style of leadership that transforms followers to rise above their self-interest by altering their morale, ideals, interests, and values, motivating them to perform better than initially expected.
Bass depicted transformational leadership as comprising four distinct factors: Charisma is shown by leaders who act as role models, create a sense of identification with a shared vision, and instill pride and faith in followers by overcoming obstacles.
This dimension is also known as idealized influence and could be further divided into two sub-factors —idealized influence attributed and idealized influence behavior. Inspiration is defined as inspiring and empowering followers to enthusiastically accept and pursue challenging goals and a mission.
Finally, leaders who consider old problems in new ways, articulate these new ideas, and encourage followers to rethink their conventional practice and ideas are said to be intellectually stimulating. Later, Rafferty and Griffin re-examine the theoretical model developed by Bass to identify five dimensions of transformational leadership: Vision is one of the five elements that contribute to charisma Weber, As opposed to the broader construct of charisma or idealized influence proposed by Bass and his colleagues, vision is the expression of an idealized picture of the future based around organizational values.
Vision results in the internalization of organizational values and goals that encourages individuals to adopt desired behaviors McClelland, House defined vision as a transcendent ideal that represents shared values and argued that charismatic leaders demonstrate a number of behaviors, including articulating an ideology that enhances goal clarity, task focus, and value congruence.
Inspirational communication is the expression of positive and encouraging messages about the organization and statements that build motivation and confidence. Inspirational leaders use appeals and emotion laden statements to arouse followers' emotions and motivation. Supportive leadership is a component of individualized consideration leadership construct.
- Leadership Styles Overview
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Individualized consideration occurs when a leader has a developmental orientation towards staff and displays individualized attention to followers and responds appropriately to their personal needs Bass, As opposed to broader construct of individualized consideration, supportive leadership means expressing concern for followers and taking account of their individual needs.
Supportive leaders direct their behavior toward the satisfaction of subordinates' needs and preferences, display concern for subordinates' welfare, and create a friendly and psychologically supportive work environment House, Intellectual stimulation is enhancing employees' interest in and awareness of problems and increasing their ability to think about problems in new ways Bass, Personal recognition is the provision of rewards such as praise and acknowledgement of effort for achievement of specified goals.
Personal recognition occurs when a leader indicates that he or she values individuals' efforts and rewards the achievement of outcomes consistent with the vision through praise and acknowledgment of followers' efforts. Transactional leadership Transactional leadership is the second style identified in the literature. Transactional leadership Bass, ; Burns, refers to a dynamic exchange between leaders and their subordinates, in which the leader establishes specific goals, monitors progress, and identifies rewards that can be expected upon goal achievement.
Bass characterized the transactional leader as one who operates within the existing system or culture, has a preference for risk avoidance, pays attention to time constraints and efficiency, and generally prefers process over substance as a means for maintaining control. Bass model of leadership a includes three dimensions: Contingent reward relates back to earlier work conducted by Burns where the leader assigns work and then rewards the follower for carrying out the assignment.
Leaders transact with followers by rewarding effort contractually, telling them what to do to gain rewards, punishing undesired action, and giving extra feedback and promotions for good work Bass, Bass emphasized that by providing contingent rewards, a transactional leader might inspire a reasonable degree of involvement, loyalty, commitment and performance from subordinates.
Leaders transact with followers by intervening only when followers deviate from expectations, giving negative feedback for failure to meet standards.
MBE-P includes waiting passively for errors to occur and then taking corrective action. The leader relies heavily on passive management-by-exception, intervenes with his or her group only when procedures and standards for accomplishing tasks are not being met Bass, a.
MBE-A may be necessary when safety is an issue. The leader watches and searches for deviations from rules and standards, takes corrective action Bass, a. In the more active form of management-by-exception leaders try to anticipate mistakes or problems.Lesson 6 Trait Theories vs Behavioral Theories of Leadership
Laissez-faire leadership is a contrast to the active leadership styles of transformational and transactional leadership. It is virtually an avoidance of leadership behaviors, when an individual avoids making decisions and demonstrates a passive indifference to both tasks and followers.
Path-Goal Theory of Leadership
Leadership behaviors are ignored and no transactions are carried out. Transactional leadership occurs when one person takes the initiative in making contact with other for the purpose of an exchange of valued things. Both parties acknowledge the power relationships of the other and together they continue to pursue their respective purposes.
The people are not bound together by a mutually similar purpose. In contrast, transformational leadership occurs when one or more persons engage with one another and they increase their levels of motivation and morality. The power base, in this instance, mutually supports a common purpose. An appeal to social values thus encourages people to collaborate, rather than working as individuals and potentially compete with one another.
He also views transformational leadership as an ongoing process rather than the discrete exchanges of the transactional approach. Burns contrasted transactional and transformational leadership, believing that they lie at opposite ends of a continuum Bass, a; Yukl, Burns theorized that transforming and transactional leadership were mutually exclusive styles, an individual can display transformational leadership or transactional leadership, but not both.
Other leadership scholars e. For example, Conger and Kanungo suggested that leaders who rely on contingent rewards a dimension of transactional leadership and charisma a dimension of transformational leadership may be most successful in empowering their subordinates. Leaders are capable of being both transformational and transactional. However transformational leadership is important since it has a significant influence on the work attitudes and behaviours of followers.
Among the principal outcomes of the transformational leadership on follower found in the literature we can mention: Transformational leadership is positively associated with follower job satisfaction.
However, transformational leadership theory suggests that transformational leadership is related not only to individual follower performance but also to performance at the group and organization levels. DeGroot, Kiker and Cross suggest that charismatic leadership is more effective at increasing group performance than at increasing individual performance. However the three-way interaction between transformational leadership, employee identification with leader and innovative climate is associated with employee creativity P.
Follower Organizational citizenship behavior: Organizational commitment has an important place in the study of organizational behaviour. Batemen and Strasser state that the reasons for studying organizational commitment are related to: Components of organizational commitment Meyer and Allen and Allen and Meyer identified three separable components reflecting: Meyer and Allen argued that one of the most important reasons for distinguishing among the different forms of organizational commitment was that they have very different implications for behaviour.
Although all three forms tend to bind employees to the organization, and therefore relate negatively to turnover, their relations with other types of work behaviour can be quite different Meyer et al. Normative commitment NC entails perceived obligations to maintain employment memberships and relationships.
Individuals with high continuance commitment remain with their organizations because they perceive the costs of leaving to be too great. Becker originally proposed that people engage in consistent lines of behaviour because of the inducements side bets to do so.
Employers offer a variety of such inducements to retain employees, including job status, seniority and benefits. Further, employees often desire to avoid the social and economic costs of leaving e. CC strengthens as these side bets accumulate, rendering employees more likely to stay with the organization.
Meyer and Allen also indicate that individuals whose most important connection to the organisation is based on continuance commitment stay because they need to. Commitment due to a lack of alternative employment opportunities CC: LoAlt reflected commitment based on few existing employment alternatives. This commitment refrains the individual from leaving the organization, due to the perceived lack of more desirable employment opportunities.
Perceived sacrifice of investments associated with leaving the organization CC: This commitment is driven by the perception of loosing the investments done in the targeted organized if it is abandoned by the individual.
Outcomes of organizational commitment The interest of researchers in the construct of organizational commitment can be understood in relation to its links with desirable work outcomes. Moreover, organizational commitment has been linked to increased knowledge sharing Alvesson,increased organizational citizenship behaviours Meyer et al.