Bilateral Relations between Turkey and Libya / Rep. of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Israeli-Libyan relations became particularly tense in .. , he asked Turkey's Prime Minister Tansu Ciller to visit Libya on her way back to Turkey. The following day, the Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs declared that the vessel Relations between Turkey and Libya progressively deteriorated as Turkey. The foreign relations of Libya were largely reset at the end of the Libyan Civil War , with the On 15 July , a council spokesman told members of the Libya Contact Group meeting in Istanbul, Turkey, that his government would .. Israeli minister Ayoob Kara conducted informal relations with the Gaddafi regime, using the.
Hostility toward Israel provided justification for his unique role in the Middle East, and this became abundantly clear after the Camp David accords. Consequently, he welcomed Syria's President Hafez al Assad, who visited Libya in Septemberin order to revive the "Steadfastness Front," established by the radical Arab states, which opposed Sadat's peace initiative.
He became obsessed with the plight of the Palestinian people, believing that a great injustice was done to them. As one writer observed, "These thoughts, the injustices with which the Palestinians had put up with without choice, their meager existence inside the misery and poverty of the tents, their degradation to the humiliating status of refugees in their own country raked and tortured the mind of mu'Ammar.
A special committee was nominated by the regime shortly before Qaddafi's rise to power to raise funds for the Palestinian cause, and almost immediately it managed to collect 50, Libyan pounds. In one of his interviews in MarchQaddafi stated that his greatest ambition was to witness the liberation of Palestine. It included military training of Palestinian warriors as well as financial support for their operations, such as the attack on the Israeli athletes in Munich in Septemberand the subsequent attack on OPEC oil ministers.
According to Pentagon sources, Qaddafi maintained 34 bases used by terrorists. They were unwilling to accept Arafat's leadership, and had often embarrassed Qaddafi in their operations in Europe and the Arab countries. Fearing that he might lose control over the activities of the group, the Libyan leader embarked on a campaign aimed at curtailing their activities.
The first restrictive measure began in summerwhen the Libyan government decided to suspend the radio broadcasts of the PFLP-GC and all other Palestinian organizations. Moreover, it warned the group that if they continued their sabotage activities against the legitimate Arab regimes, their financial aid would be terminated.
This incident did little to seriously damage Qaddafi's enthusiasm for the Palestinian cause. However, Qaddafi found that support for the Palestinian cause was not as popular among the Libyans as he hoped. By summerseveral offices were opened in Libya, in order to recruit volunteers to fight for the Palestinian cause, but the number of the volunteers remained so low that the Libyan leader was compelled to state that it was the example, not the numbers that mattered.
Israeli intelligence agencies became actively involved in warning the Western countries of Qaddafi's aims. The pro-Western Arab regimes were given advance warning regarding any terrorist activity or planned assassination attempts by agents supported by Libya. According to one source, Israel's Prime Minister Menachem Begin sent Egypt information provided to him by the Israeli intelligence regarding a Libyan plot to assassinate Sadat.
They also monitored Libyan ports in which many boats were loaded with weapons on their way to the PLO. In summerthe Mossad succeeded in destroying two ships loaded with ammunitions on their way to the PLO. The tension mounted further on 4 Februarywhen the Israelis forced a Libyan aircraft to land in Ramat David air force base, near Haifa.
As it turned out, however, no Palestinians were on board. Qaddafi announced that he would order his air force to intercept any aircraft flying over the Mediterranean in search of "Israeli terrorists.
When asked by a journalist whether or not he was ready to place Libya's military arsenal, including its Mirage aircraft at the disposal of the Arab states on the front line with Israel, the Libyan leader avoided commenting about his intentions.
Qaddafi's relations with the Palestinians were characterized by periods of instability followed by reconciliation. Inthe Libyan government expelled a large number of Palestinians. Qaddafi's decision was part of the protest against the Middle East Peace Process. Since no Arab country, including the Palestinian Authority, agreed to accept them, they remained in tents on the Libyan-Egyptian border and in boats in Cyprus harbor.Netanyahu, Erdogan Jabs Come at Critical Time in Syria
Eventually, some were allowed to return to Libya and some found refuge in Syria. In the beginning ofsome Palestinians still remained in the border area. On 21 Februarya Libyan Airlines plane en route to Cairo lost its bearings and headed toward the Sinai peninsula, where it was shot down by an Israeli aircraft, killing Libyan passengers. There were media speculations that Israel was enraged by Libya's unqualified support for the members of the Black September who were involved in the massacre of the Israeli athletes in Munich the year before, and therefore became prone to retaliation.
The spectacular retaliatory actions carried out by the Israelis throughout the years in distant areas had proven their ability to choose more appropriate targets.
Despite Israel's explanation that the airliner was mistakenly shot down by pilots, who believed it to be a military aircraft on its way to destroy Israel's nuclear reactor in Dimona, the incident had greatly antagonized Qaddafi who vowed to retaliate.
Shortly after the Libyan airlines incident, Qaddafi sought Egyptian help for his plan to sink the Queen Elizabeth II, which carried a group of wealthy Jews who came to celebrate Israel's Independence Day.
Sadat dismissed the plan as too flashy and too risky and did not comply with Qaddafi's request to collaborate in the proposed mission.
His response had an adverse effect on Libya's relations with Egypt.
Qaddafi was even more offended when Egypt and Syria began coordinating joint military activities in an effort to embark on a new war with Israel without consulting him.
Infuriated by their decision to ignore Libya, he began criticizing pan-Arabism, saying that it was a complete farce. However, despite the harsh anti-Israeli rhetoric emanating from Tripoli, Libya had little to offer. He recalled in his memoirs, "Gaddafy's own forces were so small that they had nothing of value to us except Mirage III fighter bombers, and we already had these.
Qaddafi described the war as no more than a cowardly attempt to alter the status quo.
- Bilateral Relations between Turkey and Libya
- Foreign relations of Israel
In his eyes it was a far cry from being the total war of liberation he hoped for. It was not so much the hatred for Israel that angered Qaddafi, but the fact that he was overshadowed by his rival Sadat.
As Fouad Ajami explained in his celebrated book The Arab Predicament, "The October War might not have been the glorious achievement that Sadat made it out to be, but it was nonetheless an achievement. Egypt was once again a country with a leader, and thus Qaddafi's bid for unity could be put aside. In a message alluding to Sadat's ceasefire agreement with Israel, he said that what happened at Kilometer was, "a terrible and peculiar nightmare" to him, and that the Arabs should have maintained their honor by continuing the struggle against the Zionist enemy at all costs.
Particularly vocal were members of the Likud Party and their supporters on the fringes of the Israeli radical right-wing. For example, in one of his swashbuckling speeches, Sharon informed the Israelis that the IDF was capable of attacking any target in the Arab world, including Libya.
Some even planned to attack Libyan targets overseas. In one of his interviews Rabbi Meir Kahane, leader of the extremist Kach movement, admitted that he planned to attack Libyan targets. He dismissed their plan as worthless saying, "I can't take part in a war which I regard as a comedy. He explained that participating in such a war was beneath his dignity and went on to say, "I will not participate in any war unless its objective is the expulsion of the usurpers and the return of the Jews of Europe to the countries whence they came.
However, his aid to the Palestinian radicals enraged many Israelis and sometimes caused friction between Israel and its Western allies. Thus for example, in autumnArab commandos were reported to have had a scheme to launch a surface-to-air missile at an EL AL jet, which was about to take off from Leonardo Da Vinci airport in Rome.
When the Italian authorities released the suspects and flew them to Tripoli on the grounds that there was no sufficient evidence to convict them, Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir said that Italy needed a warning not to collaborate with Qaddafi.
It also supplied shells to the Druze under Walid Jumbalatt's command. These shipments passed across the Syrian border to the Chaouf mountains. According to one report, he offered financial assistance to Pakistan, on condition that it would provide him with an atomic bomb.
This is precisely what led Israel to explore the possibility of cooperating with India in order to destroy the Pakistani reactor. This event had greatly outraged Qaddafi.
He regarded the raid as a conspiracy concocted by Israel and the US and in retaliation he planned to hit American targets.
Both the Republican and Democratic conventions of that year were on his hit list; however, the recruited commandos refused to collaborate and the plan was abandoned.
Foreign relations of Libya
Its representative joined Benin and Tanzania in sponsoring a resolution demanding that Israel compensate Uganda for all losses that occurred during the raid. The debate that ensued became ugly as well as comical. As the debate continued I called the United Nations to break away from the grip of despots and assume its rightful role in behalf of humanity and international peace.
Following those remarks the Libyan representative made a hysterical attack on me. Refuting the allegation that I hated Libya, I added laconically, 'Indeed, some of my best friends are Libyans. Libya's policy toward Israel continued the same pattern of hostility during the s. On 1 SeptemberQaddafi proposed a union with Syria and threatened to enlist as a fedayee in Palestine if his proposal was rejected. The Syrian government agreed and both sides decided to establish a democratic union against Zionism, imperialism and reaction.
However, the plan never got off the ground. As it turned out, Israel lost ground when the past hostility between Libya and Egypt tapered off somewhat following Sadat's assassination on 6 October and Qaddafi seemed less hostile to Mubarak.
Nevertheless, Qaddafi was carried away by the anti-Egyptian and anti-Israeli propaganda campaign, which he had been advocating for years. On 13 JulyTripoli announced that it had discovered a joint Egyptian-Israeli plot to attack Libya. In a speech commemorating Syria's 21st anniversary of the revolution, he blamed Egypt for signing the Camp David peace accord with Israel, saying that Egypt allowed the Israeli Chief of Staff to inspect the Libyan border.
He asked his audience, "Who can guarantee that the Israeli forces would not be capable of passing through Egypt and thus threaten Libya? Israel, he said, was determined to divert the waters of the Nile into the Negev desert. Qaddafi added that Egypt adhered to the Camp David accord because it feared Israel and not because it benefited from the accord. By the mid s, Qaddafi began meddling in Sudanese affairs and thus alienated Israel, which sought to reach an agreement with Nimeiri in an effort to rescue the Falashas.
The Israeli aircraft passed through the Libyan coast without being detected. This incident had demonstrated to Qaddafi how vulnerable Libya was to an Israeli assault. In earlyIsrael intercepted a Libyan executive jet and was thus able to learn about a gathering of Palestinian leaders scheduled to take place in Libya on 4 February Among those planning to attend the meeting were George Habash, Nayif Hawatmeh, Ahmed Jibril and Abu Nidal who sought to obtain Qaddafi's support in order to plot against Arafat's moderate attitude toward Israel.
On 27 AprilIsrael's Foreign Minister Yitzhak Shamir met Norway's Deputy Foreign Minister who informed him that his government had increased its security measures against terrorism; Shamir responded by saying, "Security measures are not enough.
Despite his hostility, Qaddafi has been secretly selling oil to Israel. An American engineer who had knowledge of this deal revealed that many Israeli products and canned foods were openly sold in Libyan supermarkets. He told George Tremlett, "Colonel Gaddafi is always pragmatic.
Pragmatism and Rhetoric in Libya's Policy Toward Israel | Abadi | Journal of Conflict Studies
He never lets politics interfere with trade. The newspaper Al-Jamahiriya published articles critical of Israel on a regular basis. Thus, for example, on 19 February it called upon the Arabs to unite in order to prevent Israel from stealing the region's water resources. Yet Qaddafi's desire to avoid isolation and to maintain some measure of normalcy in his relations with the US convinced him that better relations with Israel could serve as a way to win Washington's favor.
He had watched how Assad managed to improve his image in Washington's eyes by using the Israeli card. And Assad was depressingly sane. Officials in the Israeli Foreign Ministry began to doubt Qaddafi's sincerity. Peres rightfully argued that "The Libyans came to us to make a good impression on America. He argued that the Palestinians were evicted from their land while other immigrants, such as Russian Jews and Falashas from Ethiopia, were allowed to enter Palestine.
Qaddafi added that he could not understand why it should be forbidden to him to meet the leaders of the Palestinian resistance, while European and American leaders had the right to meet with Salman Rushdie, the author of the infamous Satanic Verses.
When news regarding Israel's efforts to mend fences with Libya triggered an angry response from US officials, Israel denied the veracity of these reports. These remarks were made by Adnan al-Khashoggi, a Saudi businessman close to Qaddafi, in an interview with the Israeli newspaper Davar. Qaddafi invited Libyan Jews to visit his country. Israel's Chief Rabbi, Yisrael Lau, was personally invited to attend an international conference of spiritual leaders in Tripoli.
Even more surprising was Qaddafi's statement allowing Jews of Libyan extraction to claim compensation for their confiscated property. The Israelis agreed with Peres'assertion that Libya's motive in sending the pilgrims to Israel was part of Qaddafi's tactic aimed at utilizing the Israeli card in order to improved his ties with the US, which turned sour on 21 Decemberwhen two Libyans were accused of planting a bomb on Pan American flight that exploded over Lockerbie, Scotland.
As it turned out, however, none of Qaddafi's good will gestures helped lead to a diplomatic breakthrough between the two countries. When asked by a journalist what would be his government's position in the coming negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians, Libya's Foreign Minister Hamid Haydar said that his government supported whatever the Palestinians were going to agree to.
The pilgrims called for a jihad to liberate Jerusalem from Zionist occupation and the Israeli government was debating whether or not to deport the delegation. The newspaper Al-Jamahiriya criticized what it called the "scramble" to recognize Israel and lamented the fact that the Arab Boycott against Israel, which had been so far an effective means to pressure Israel, could no longer be used.
Qaddafi began expressing his willingness to accept the peace process. At that meeting Qaddafi asked her to convey to Washington his willingness to accept the peace process and to turn over the two Libyans accused of planting the bomb on the Pan American jet. In return, Qaddafi asked that the US lift its economic sanctions on Libya, and allow the two suspects to be tried in a neutral country.
It became increasingly obvious to him that his revisionist plan for a Middle East dominated by Libya could not materialize. In addition, the peace process had isolated Libya from the Arab world. Qaddafi's vision of a new order in the Middle East was in desperate need of a metamorphosis. Qaddafi, who bitterly opposed the Camp David accord, came to realize that Egypt was his only bridge to the West, and he made attempts to settle his differences with Mubarak.
Moreover, there were reports that Qaddafi asked Ciller to deliver a letter to the Israelis. The latter denied the veracity of these reports and JANA's political reporter in Tripoli said that Libya was confident that Ciller would never make such a statement "because she knew the stance of the leader of the revolution against the Israeli enemy and about Palestine and its people and also his stance against imperialism.
The end of the Cold War and the onset of the Israeli-Palestinian dialogue have created a new reality, which even Qaddafi was forced to recognize. The decision made by Morocco and Tunisia to normalize relations with Israel had irritated Qaddafi greatly.
When a Moroccan economic delegation visited Israel in autumnTripoli criticized the visit, saying that it constituted a violation of the Arab League's embargo on the Zionist enemy. For example, in an interview with an Egyptian weekly, Libya's Secretary of Information and Culture stated unequivocally that Libya would never recognize the "racist" state of Israel, because unlike the Palestinians, it has nothing to gain from such recognition.
Whether or not this statement was genuine, it reflected a clear pragmatic trend, which had become a pronounced feature in Libya's recent foreign policy orientation. By earlythere were signs that some of the Arab states were willing to relax the boycott regulations. The Libyan government reprimanded the Arab states involved, and criticized what it described as a "ridiculous" rush to normalize ties with Israel, a country whose possession of weapons of mass destruction constituted a serious threat to Arab security.
When the issue of allowing Libya to become a member of the UN Security Council was debated by its members, the Israelis expressed serious concern. Libya's Interior Minister Mohammad al-Hijazi accused Israel and the US of "spreading rumors and lies" regarding reports that claimed clashes between Libyan security forces and fundamentalist groups had occurred in eastern Libya. Al-Hijazi argued that all was quiet in Libya.
Accelerating inevitable Israeli-Libyan relations
The Israelis learned from foreign sources that a memorandum of understanding was signed after a meeting between the defense ministries of both countries.
The Israelis were also informed that Iran agreed to help Libya construct a plant for fuel and other missile components, and that Iranian instructors were sent to train the Libyans on all aspects of missile construction. In autumnthe Israeli daily Ha'aretz reported that Roger Tamraz, an oil tycoon close to Qaddafi, had conducted negotiations with the Israeli company Granit HaCarmel, the owner of most of Sonol Oil Company's shares, in order to take control of Sonol.
Tamraz's connections to Qaddafi attracted the attention of both Arab and Israeli intelligence agencies. Qaddafi knew all along about these dealings, and did not dissuade Tamraz from conducting his financial negotiations.
Qaddafi has not only been trading with Israel covertly, he also has expressed his willingness to accept the peace process. During the Syrian Occupation of Lebanon —it was highly unlikely that Lebanon would sign a peace treaty with Israel before Syria, as Syria's influence on Lebanese politics was strong; however, the Syrian Occupation withdrew from Lebanon, yet the Iran—Syria—Hezbollah axis remained through the heavy arms presence.
However, Lebanon was under the Syrian Occupation, which took over the treaties and negotiations. In Augustafter the clash between Hezbollah and Israel, Lebanese Prime Minister Fouad Siniora said that Lebanon would be the "last Arab country to make peace with Israel" because of the large number of civilians that were killed in the Lebanon War.
Since the yearand due to many wars with Hezbollah, Israel treats Lebanon as an "enemy state",  although it is considering the possibility of a non-aggression pact. Following the September signing of the Israeli-Palestinian Declaration of PrinciplesMorocco accelerated its economic ties and political contacts with Israel. In SeptemberMorocco and Israel announced the opening of bilateral liaison offices.
Israel—Qatar relations Qatar and Israel do not currently have diplomatic relations, although they maintained economic relations between and Qatar is a major financial supporter of the Palestinian Sunni-Islamic fundamentalist group Hamas.
Saudi Arabia Main article: Israel—Saudi Arabia relations InSaudi Arabia announced the end of its ban on Israeli goods and services, mostly due to its application to the World Trade Organizationwhere one member country cannot have a total ban on another.
It calls for Israel's withdrawal from territory occupied in June in order for peace with the Arab states; then-Crown Prince Abdullah extended a multilateral peace proposal based on withdrawal in At that time, Israel did not respond to the offer.
In Saudi Arabia again officially supported a resolution of the Arab-Israeli conflict which supported a full right of Palestinian refugees to move to Israel, which generated more official negative reactions from Israeli authorities. Israel—Syria relations and Iran—Israel proxy conflict Syria's relations with Israel are very poor, due to Syria's close ties with the anti-Israel militant group Hezbollah and the Islamic Republic of Iran.
SinceSyria has accepted the import of apples from farmers in the Golan Heightsterritory that it claims, through the Quneitra crossing. This was a result of the ongoing Israeli refusal to accept apples from Golan farmers reportedly due to over-supplywhich led to a plea by the farmers to the Syrian government to accept their produce before it became spoiled in order to prevent economic collapse.
Insome 10, tons of apples grown by Druze farmers in the Golan Heights were sent to Syria. Israel—Tunisia relations Tunisia participated in the Yom Kippur Warsending 1,—2, troops to fight alongside a coalition of Arab countries against Israel.
Expressing "surprise", the Israeli Foreign Ministry said: Israel—Turkey relations Turkish firefighting plane sent to aid Israel, Turkey was the first Muslim-majority nation to formally recognize the State of Israel,  only one year after the Declaration of the Jewish State 28 March Israel was a major supplier of arms to Turkey. Military, strategic, and diplomatic cooperation between Turkey and Israel were given high priority by the governments of both countries, which shared concerns with respect to regional instabilities in the Middle East.
In Februaryrelations between Turkey and Israel suffered when Turkey hosted a delegation from the Palestinian group Hamasalthough on a formal visit to Turkey inthe Israeli then Foreign Minister Tzipi Livni stated that "Bilateral relations [between Turkey and Israel] are excellent. Not only on a leader-to-leader level but also on a people-to-people level". In Januarythe Turkish government's condemnation of the —09 Gaza War severely strained relations between the two countries.
After some diplomatic activity by U. President Barack Obama, Israeli PM Netanyahu did issue an apology over the flotilla events and Israel and Turkey agreed on financial compensation; in return, Turkey dropped its demand that the Gaza Strip blockade end and also removed state support from several lawsuits in Turkey that demanded the arrest and trial of Israeli military and political leaders who were in charge in during the flotilla incident.
The Leviathan gas field in the Eastern Mediterranean is a further source of friction. Israel is planning its exploitation in partnership with Cyprus, a state that Turkey does not recognize because of the Cyprus dispute.
Accelerating inevitable Israeli-Libyan relations - Opinion - Jerusalem Post
However, inTurkey and Israel began to work on diplomatic relations by holding a secret meeting, and events over the last 2 years have brought Leviathan into position as a project that will help both Ankara and Jerusalem and make Nicoisia into less of a potential problem. United Arab Emirates Main article: Israel—United Arab Emirates relations Relations are tense.
Following Israel's assassination of Mahmoud Al-MabhouhUAE announced that travelers suspected of being Israeli would not be admitted even if using a foreign passport. More recently, relations have improved to the extent that Israel has decided to open an office in Abu Dhabi, albeit only as a mission to the International Renewable Energy Agency.
Israel—Yemen relations They do not have diplomatic relations and relations between the two countries are very tense. People with an Israeli passport or any passport with an Israeli stamp cannot enter Yemen, and Yemen is defined as an "enemy state" by Israeli law. Sub-Saharan Africa Israel has diplomatic relations with 41 of the 44 Sub-Saharan African states that are not members of the Arab Leagueincluding a number of Muslim-majority states.
Angola—Israel relations Relations between Israel and Angola are based on trade and foreign policy. The Israeli ambassador to Angola is Avraham Benjamin.