USA–India Comparison Studies on Consumer Perception of a Nutritious .. rational and expectation followed by study description and results. . Analysis on taste perception is to test the relationship between the perceptions of healthiness and taste as .. NewYork, NY: Columbia University Press; (). More prosaically, it also identified issues for building Indo-American defense Whether or not the new partnership goes as far as Pakistani pundits fear, .. Pankaj Mishra, “The Myth of the New India,” New York Times, July 6, , p. .. Indo-US Military Relationship: Expectations and Perceptions, Released from the. changes in the India-U.S. relationship are occurring, altering perceptions and and Jawaharlal Nehru received extensive publicity in Life, the New York Times, .. The highs ranged from an early expectation that the United States would be a.
Inflation perceptions, as with inflation expectations, vary by gender and income, though a correlation between perceptions and age is less clear. Even controlling for demographics, respondents with higher perceived inflation also tend to expect higher inflation, suggesting that changes in inflation perceptions could lead to changes in inflation expectations as well.
The questions were posed in February, May, and August of this year and will be repeated in November. In this note, we focus on the responses from the February and May surveys but we plan on updating the analysis when we have the responses from all four surveys. The two new questions: During the past 12 months, do you think that prices in general went up or went down, or stayed where they were a year ago?
What about prices over the past 5 to 10 years? Do you think prices now are higher, about the same, or lower than they were 5 to 10 years ago? During the next 12 months, do you think that prices in general will go up, or go down, or stay where they are now? What about the outlook for prices over the next 5 to 10 years? Mrs Gandhi assured Reagan that India was as keen to see all foreign troops out of Afghanistan but insisted that this would only be possible if arming of the rebels is halted and the Soviets are convinced that the Afghan Government is not an anti-Soviet one.
Mrs Gandhi also politey but firmly informed Reagan that Pakistan had assured the Soviets that US-supplied arms would never be used against Soviet troops.
While America's future commitment to World Bank. The Reagan Administration will commit itself to previous levels of IDA funding for the current replenishment period and will not oppose the third instalment as it did the first. The US, however, will insist that India should concentrate on commercial borrowing and it is willing to work out arrangements to facilitate this. Future arms deals between the two countries are likely to be negotiated in areas where India does not seek joint production terms.
The activities will include joint scientific task forces and a blue ribbon panel - a prestigious body headed by Reagan's science advisor. Dr George Keyworth and M. The overall view was that Mrs Gandhi's visit had greatly enhanced friendly relations between the two countries and given the US a better understanding of how important the two sides were to each other.
These committees play as important a role as the White House and the Senate in shaping US foreign policy, and Mrs Gandhi succeeded in wooing them shamelessly. According to several eyewitness accounts, Mrs Gandhi had members of Congress eating out of her hand. Unlike diplomats and bureaucrats.India's World - US-India Strategic Partnership
Congressmen and Senators are a feisty lot. But Mrs Gandhi waltzed through the inquisition with supreme aplomb. Her reception in the Senate, according to sources, was nothing short of enthusiastic. Her performance in the Senate was impressive and her short address drew concentrated applause from even such dour personalities as Senators John Stennis of Mississippi and John Tower of Texas - both members of the Armed Services Committee.
Jab-locki, chairman of the House Foreign Affairs Committee, described the encounter as "very pleasant and very direct" compared to her visit when she was "so irritated, with a chip on her shoulder. Millicent Fenwick asked toward the end: So I've got to ask you this question: I do not know of any country in the world where people don't love the United States. Emboldened by her success in her toughest hurdles so far. Mrs Gandhi made the traditional pilgrimage to the National Press Club, serene and confident.
Nearly people attended what turned out to be a freewheeling discussion about the Emergency, the Indian economy, Indo-Pakistan relations and, inevitably, Rajiv Gandhi who happened to be present. Though her replies were the standard pitch and no different from standard positions she has taken in the past, her presentation and her relaxed manner was enough to win her most of the rounds and repeated applause: The Indian Embassy and some members of the visiting delegation made some inexcusable blunders that could cost dearly in the future.
The Indians, probably unknown to Mrs Gandhi, snubbed Treasury Secretary Regan who is akin to a finance minister and makes all decisions regarding World Bank funding and concessional aid. Regan had asked for a private meeting with Mrs Gandhi and the Indians turned him down. Regan responded by rejecting an invitation to Mrs Gandhi's dinner.
Similarly, Congressman Jack Kemp, a promising presidential candidate and a personal friend of the President, failed to persuade the embassy to allow him and two colleagues - Congressmen Jerry Lewis and Micky Edwards - a few moments with the prime minister. All three are key members of the House Sub-committee on Foreign Operations - a key committee that holds the purse strings to American foreign aid. Ambassador Harry Barnes - a man totally dedicated to improving Indo-US relations - also had his feathers ruffled.
In the space of one crowded week, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi dazzles America
He had arranged for several important senators to meet informally with Rajiv but the Indian side got involved in an unseemly turf battle claiming that such meetings should be arranged by them.
As a result, the meeting was called off. World Bank President Clausen was not received, as is customary, in the lobby of the hotel when he arrived for his personal meeting with Mrs Gandhi. Instead, he took the lift to the 15th floor by himself and was kept waiting in the ante-room before he was actually ushered in for his meeting. Chatting informally with intellectual But despite the flaws, which were typical bureaucratic bungles, the Washington visit's importance remained undisturbed.
Both sides took tough stands when it was required and respected each other more for it. Added another, "India's foreign policy on August 6 was exactly what it was on July 26," emphasising that the purpose of the exercise was to transmit an appreciation of India's position rather than change it. The view in South Block is that while Washington's capacity to do India good may be limited but its capacity to do India harm looms much larger.
The issues that prompted this realisation are compelling and formed the key areas of the wide-ranging talks. Some of the main areas were: The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan has changed the strategic map of the region, isolated India in several forums and given the Zia-ul-Haq regime in Pakistan a new lease of life.
India's friendship with the Soviet Union has been painted unwarrantedly in strategic colours and the fountainhead of this view was Washington which, under Reagan, has reverted to a new cold war with the Soviets and influenced many countries in India's immediate neighbourhood against her. Mrs Gaudhi and Reagan in the Oval Office: Setting the tone India's economic policies were not being fully understood in the US, the world's biggest storehouse of capital and know-how.
Frigid Indo-US ties were blocking India's attempts to improve ties with Pakistan and the Gulf region where US security perceptions dictated a militaristic attitude towards India's exclusion. Mrs Gandhi was at pains to explain to the American side that from the point of view of remittances and oil supplies, the area and its stability are vital to Indian interests. But the success the Indian side had in putting its views across, and the positive reaction to it, was also a result of the subtly changed US perceptions of India that have gradually taken place over the last two years.
It was a culmination of various factors - Mrs Gandhi's statements at the Melbourne Commonwealth Conference, her meeting with British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher last March, the success of her discussion with the Saudi Arabian rulers, the efforts made by the Indian Government to normalise relations with China and even the uncertain progress to a no-war pact with Pakistan all contributed largely to the changed perceptions in the US.
It was summed up accurately in Deputy Secretary of State Walter Stoes-sel's briefing to newsmen on the eve of the Gandhi visit when he stated: We respect her position in the non-aligned movement. However, there were also significant international cross-currents that contributed to the Reagan-Gandhi love-fest.
The last couple of years have witnessed an increasing Indian disenchantment with the Soviet Union and a corresponding disappointment in the US regarding Pakistan. Mrs Gandhi has made no scathing condemnation of the Soviet presence in Afghanistan but has made it abundantly clear in private meetings that she is becoming increasingly edgy and impatient with Soviet intransigence in the region.
On the prestigious nation-wide 'Meet The Press' programme, she bluntly remarked that "the Soviets do not agree with our view on Afghanistan. We do not agree with the communist system, the Marxist system" and she went on to describe the "great difficulty" she was facing with the Marxists in India.
FRB: Inflation Perceptions and Inflation Expectations
At the Indian Embassy: Holding court In that brief statement heard by millions of Americans, she had expressed not only her opposition to the Soviets in Afghanistan but also her own problems with the shrill, strident opposition to her from India's Moscow-backed Communist Party. Two studies tested the effect of processing level, cultural differences, and branding strategies.
In contrast to the well-established inverse relationship between healthiness and tastefulness beliefs observed in the West with industrial food products, the results of both studies revealed a positive association between health and taste for pulses in both West and East. Study 1 shows that this positive association is stronger with lower processing, suggesting the role of naturalness as bridge between health and taste.
Focusing on cultural differences, results show that while both West and East hold positive association of health and taste for pulses, this association is stronger for East. However, the role of processing level is significantly stronger in West. Study 2 looks at branding strategies for pulse products with different processing levels in West and East.
Results confirm the findings of study 1 on positive association of taste and healthiness and cross-cultural differences. Moreover, study 2 shows that cultural difference between West and East changes the effect of branding strategies on food-related belief and attitude toward food.
For American consumers, a future-oriented branding is associated with an enhanced positive healthiness—taste association, whereas a brand image emphasizing tradition leads to increased perception of the taste of product but not necessarily on the healthiness.
Current paper has theoretical and practical implications in public policy, health, and marketing. Such bipolar beliefs have been observed at the level of food attitudes, choice 10and eating behavior 11reflecting a broader tendency of Western cultures to oppose pleasure, hedonism, and other facets of human experience, with health, convenience, and other utilitarian functions of consumer products in general 12 As cultural heritages importantly impact food beliefs 16the bipolar beliefs of taste and health in Western culture do not necessarily exist in Eastern culture.
Studies generally suggest that Eastern cultures, such as Chinese and Indian, believe that taste is intrinsically embedded in healthiness, therefore, associate healthiness and tastefulness in a positive way.