SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATION - WikiEducator
Describe the relation between education and sociology; The sociology of education is the study of how social institutions and individual. This essay will firstly define education and sociology then it will define any out comes can be explained exclusively through the study of his or her This definition shows that there is a very close relationship between the. The sociology of education is the study of how public institutions and individual experiences . of the dominant group, in the form of practices and relation to culture, is assumed by the school to be the Breen, R. and Goldthorpe, J. () Explaining Educational Differentials: Towards a . show. v · t · e. Topics in education.
Colleges tend to draw students from a relatively advantaged background because of their high costs and stiff academic requirements for enrollment. As a result, there is less funding available for students who actually need it. This ends up reinforcing the existing status hierarchy by keeping the affluent wealthy and the poor unable to attend college. Some of those under-privileged youth choose another path as a result.
Despite being both volunteer and high risk, the military remains attractive to a certain segment of the U. Such individuals view the military as more promising than entry-level jobs in the workforce without a college diploma. Cognitively, young people from disadvantaged homes are about average, but are socioeconomically disadvantaged, which is one of the primary reasons they turn to the military rather than college to pursue financial success, with some success.
The more years of education a person has, the greater their likelihood of engaging in healthy behaviors and, inversely, the lower their likelihood of engaging in unhealthy behaviors, like smoking. Focus [ edit ] Charter Schools[ edit ] Charter schools are publicly funded elementary or secondary schools in the United States that have been freed from some of the rules, regulations, and statutes that apply to other public schools in exchange for some type of accountability for producing certain results, which are set forth in each school's charter.
Their founders are often teachers, parents, or activists who feel restricted by traditional public schools. State-run charter schools schools not affiliated with local school districts are often established by non-profit groups, universities, and some government entities.Self-Concept, Self-Identity & Social Identity – Psychology & Sociology - Lecturio
They are accountable for both academic results and fiscal practices to several groups, including the sponsor that grants them, the parents who choose them, and the public that funds them. Sociology offers a perspective a view of the world. View of the world is referred to as a sociological perspective or as a sociological imagination.
This opens a window to another world.
- Sociology of education
Hence, sociologists have come up with different definitions of sociology of education. It is easy to study sociology of education after discovering what sociology is. This definition shows that there is a very close relationship between the individual and the society. It looks at how children become fully-fledged socialization. Further more, the definition talks about social relations in a learning environment and network of such relations which are known as society.
His definition refers to the study of sociology of education by using the historical approach. It studies initial specific conditions. For any institution, organization or society to develop properly there is needed to trace the origin or background.
Theories of Education
In other words this approach explains how society and the institution develop. It looks at interactions within the society and also society and other institutions. There are also possible outcomes or achievements of these interactions. This definition of sociology of education is suitable because it speaks much of what goes on in education system. It clearly states that it is important to know sociology before knowing what sociology of education is.
This is because sociology is related t sociology of education. Society is a group of people who share a certain culture and a territory. Perspective is a view of the world and it is referred to as a sociological preservative or sociological imagination. As we look at other world or our own, sociological imagination casts another form of light on us. This in return enables us to gain a new vision of social life.
In other words it helps us to find out why people do what they do like eating, talking and many more. Sociological imagination also looks at social locations.
Introduction to Sociology/Education
A social location is where people are located in a particular society. Sociologists consider jobs, age, race, income, gender and they also look at types of jobs we are doing in order to understand our behavior.
Behavior is studied in order to discover the regularities and order in that behavior and expressing these discoveries as theoretic prospective or generalization that describes a wide variety of patterns of behavior.
The discovering of these irregularities is due to the fact that man has culture and living in a group demands interaction with one another in that group. He applied a sociological approach to the understanding of education system unlike other sociologists who defined the term sociology of education.
He also came up with idea that education should be studied from the sociological perspective which helps students to understand sociology of education. To Durkheim school system is the main focus of sociology of education. To this effect he looked at the structure of the school and interactions in the school. He looked at the way individuals interact, that is teachers with fellow teachers, teachers with pupils, administrators with fellow administrators, administrator with teachers and pupils and pupils with fellow pupil.
He looked at how discipline can be maintained in schools since in sociology of education; we try to understand the problem of education from a sociological perspective.
Durkheim not only looked at interactions within the school but also the relationship between the school and the community. He looked at the outcome of these interactions because individuals have influence on other individuals and society has influence on the education system.
Thus structural functionalism opposes social mobility. The weakness of this perspective lies in unability to answer the question why would the working class wish to stay working class?
And this debate has given birth to another perspective theory that is conflict theory. We will study conflict theory in next sub section.
Relations in society, in this view, are mainly based on exploitation,dominition,subordination and conflict. This is the opposite view of society than the previous idea structural functionalism that most people accept continuing inequality. Some conflict theorists believe education is controlled by the nation which is controlled by the powerful social group, and its purpose is to reproduce existing inequalities, as well as legitimise acceptable common ideas which actually as reinforcement to the privileged positions of the dominant group.
Education is one of the most powerful social institution as it has access to the children. But the question arises that what is the dominant force behind Educational institution.
Who decides the way educational institutions should run. As we read society has many social groups with different social aims and aspirations, different status and life chances. As the aspiration of different group are varied and may be conflicting. So there is conflict for becoming the dominant force of Educational instutions. And obviously the dominant group will be the force behing educational institutions.
And educational institutions follows the directions of dominant group to maintain the status -quo of society ie the lower, middle and upper class children become lower, middle and upper class adults respectively. This is a cyclic process as the dominant group roots the values,and aims favouring themselves in educational institutions. Dominant group also promotes the myth through other institution like government, economy that education is for all and provide a means of achieving wealth and status.
Anyone who fails to achieve this goal, according to the myth, has to blame himself; not the social inequality and unfavourable educational. Conflict theorists believe this social reproduction is a cyclic process because the whole education system is flooded with ideologies provided by the dominant group.
According to this theory people always tries to go up in level of society. Thus this theory promotes social mobility. Cultural capital denotes the accumulation of knowledge, experience,skills one has had through the course of their life that enables him to succeed more so than someone from a less experienced background. Pierre Bourdieu a sociologist has further elaborated the social reproduction theory and developed the relation between the structure educational institutions and the learners.
Bourdieu has built his theoretical framework around the important concepts of cultural capital. This concepts is based on the idea that social structures educational institutions particularly determine individuals' chances, through the mechanism of the cultural capital.
Sociology of education - Wikipedia
Bourdieu used the idea of cultural capital to explore the differences in outcomes for students from different classes. He explored the conflict between the orthodox reproduction and the innovative production of knowledge and experience. He found that this conflict is intensified by considerations of which particular cultural capital is to be conserved and reproduced in schools.
Bourdieu argues that it is the culture of the dominant groups, and therefore their cultural capital, which is embodied in schools, and that this leads to social reproduction.
The cultural capital of the dominant group, in the form of practices and relation to culture, is assumed by the school to be the natural and only proper type of cultural capital and is therefore legitimated.
Students who possess this legitimate cultural capital gain educational capital in the form of qualifications. Learner having cultural capital different from accepted cultural capital are therefore disadvantaged.
Theories of Education
To gain qualifications they must acquire legitimate cultural capital, by exchanging their own lower-class cultural capital. This exchange is not straight forward and easy. They have to act also against their instincts and expectations. Their expectations and instinct influenced by the cultural capital found in the school, also helps in social reproduction by encouraging less-privileged students to eliminate themselves from the system as drop outs.
That is why still,only a small number of less-privileged students achieve success. And majority of these students who get success at education had to incorporate the values of the dominant classes and use them as their own. The process of social reproduction is not perfect and very few learners gets success to overcome the barrier of cultural capital;but most of them fails to do so.
Therefore Bourdieu's perspective reveals how structures play an important role in determining individual achievement in school.