Ancient Mesopotamia - Babylon and Assyria
You may print or download ONE copy of this document for the purpose .. closer relationship between Assyria and Babylon, to the extent that Babylon is. Sargonid monarchs, the struggle of maintaining sovreignty over Babylonia while . rulers to further their political goals, the realm of the divine and the realm in .. The "Sin of Sargon", then, represents the relationship between Sennacherib. The empire began modestly at the city of Ashur (known as Subartu to the Sumerians), located in Mesopotamia north-east of Babylon, where merchants who.
Assyria and Babylonia
In this way the laws could not be changed and were posted for all to see, though few people could read. You can read some of the laws from the Code of Hammurabi, which I found listed online; what do you think about these laws?
If someone cuts down a tree on someone else's land, he will pay for it. If someone is careless when watering his fields, and he floods someone else's by accident, he will pay for the grain he has ruined. If a man wants to throw his son out of the house, he has to go before a judge and say, "I don't want my son to live in my house any more. If the reasons are not good, the man can't throw his son out.
If the son has done some great evil to his father, his father must forgive him the first time. But if he has done something evil twice, his father can throw him out. If a thief steals a cow, a sheep, a donkey, a pig, or a goat, he will pay ten times what it is worth. If he doesn't have any money to pay with, he will be put to death.
An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth. If a man puts out the eye of another man, put his own eye out.
Assyrian - Babylonian Empires Map
If he knocks out another man's tooth, knock out his own tooth. If he breaks another man's bone, break his own bone. If a doctor operates on a patient and the patient dies, the doctor's hand will be cut off. If a builder builds a house, and that house collapses and kills the owner's son, the builder's son will be put to death. If a robber is caught breaking a hole into the house so that he can get in and steal, he will be put to death in front of that hole.
If a son strike his own father, his hands shall be cut off. He then conquered Babylonia, taking Kashtiliash IV as a captive and ruled there himself as king for seven years, taking on the old title "King of Sumer and Akkad" first used by Sargon of Akkad. Tukulti-Ninurta I thus became the first Akkadian speaking native Mesopotamian to rule the state of Babylonia, its founders having been foreign Amorites, succeeded by equally foreign Kassites.
Tukulti-Ninurta petitioned the god Shamash before beginning his counter offensive. The victorious Assyrians demolished the walls of Babylon, massacred many of the inhabitants, pillaged and plundered his way across the city to the Esagila temple, where he made off with the statue of Marduk.
In the process he defeated the Elamiteswho had themselves coveted Babylon. He also wrote an epic poem documenting his wars against Babylon and Elam. He progressed further south into what is today Arabiaconquering the pre-Arab South Semitic kingdoms of Dilmun and Meluhha. After a Babylonian revolt, he raided and plundered the temples in Babylon, regarded as an act of sacrilege. As relations with the priesthood in Ashur began deteriorating, Tukulti-Ninurta built a new capital city; Kar-Tukulti-Ninurta.
Leo Oppenheim translates as a narwhal in the sea. The general view is that the restoration of the temple of the gods Ashur and Hadad at the Assyrian capital of Assur Ashur was one of his initiatives.
He built some of the earliest examples of both Zoological Gardens and Botanical Gardens in Ashur, collecting all manner of animals and plants from his empire, and receiving a collection of exotic animals as tributes from Egypt.
Late in his reign, the Middle Assyrian Empire erupted into civil war, when a rebellion was orchestrated by Tukulti-Mer, a pretender to the throne of Assyria. Ashur-bel-kala eventually crushed Tukulti-Mer and his allies, however the civil war in Assyria had allowed hordes of Arameans to take advantage of the situation, and press in on Assyrian controlled territory from the west. Ashur-bel-kala counterattacked them, and conquered as far as Carchemish and the source of the Khabur riverbut by the end of his reign many of the areas of Syria and Phoenicia-Canaan to the west of these regions as far as the Mediterranean, previously under firm Assyrian control, were eventually lost to the Assyrian Empire.
Society and law in the Middle Assyrian Period[ edit ] Assyrian quartet. The Middle Assyrian kingdom was well organized, and in the firm control of the king, who also functioned as the High Priest of Ashurthe state god. He had certain obligations to fulfill in the cult, and had to provide resources for the temples. Their subjects never ceased to be the foes of their masters, and the whole course of the empire was marked by incessant revolts.
The Babylonians in particular rose again and again and, on the death of Assurbanipal, finally recovered their independence. Meanwhile the Median tribes to the northeast of Assyria had been consolidated into a kingdom, with Ecbatana Achmetha, Ezra 6: Their king, Cyaxares, now began to press on Assyria.
Babylon and the cities and tribes of Southern Mesopotamia
But this diversion was only temporary and left Assyria exhausted. Again the Medes advanced in alliance with the Babylonians, and Nineveh fell, about B. Assyria proper and the northern provinces fell into the hands of the Medes, while Syria lay open to be seized by Nabopolassar, king of Babylon. Against him Nabopolassar sent his son, Nebuchadnezzar, who in smote Necho in a great battle at Carchemish Jer.
The death of Nabopolassar checked the progress of the victor, but Nebuchadnezzar advanced again as soon as he was confirmed in his kingdom, and at the close of the century he was lord of all Syria to the Egyptian border. Jerusalem was destroyed on a second revolt; Tyre too fell after a long struggle Ezek.